Skeptical Science New Research for Week #39, 2021

Mann maps future inquiry from past findings

Paleoclimate and especially retrievable records of paleoclimate in the form of proxies represent a grand opportunity left us by chance. Over the course of eons Earth's climate has wandered or not so infrequently been bent and battered into various extremes. As climate influences appear then persist or fade and even vanish over the course of time they mix with other often ephemeral factors, those in their own turn on various trajectories.

As part of the geophysical hubbub of Earh's climate records of various kinds and at various scales are created, not least by biological activity. All climate  events and the paleorecords they leave behind are grand experiments on a scale we'd prefer not to dabble in, commemorated by contemporaneous "lab notes" written into the record. We end up with valuble signals that while recorded in arcane languages are available for us to read, if we only we know to look, and how.

Because the mechanisms affecting climate are differentiated in their causes and effects, given enough meticulous attention and serious effort more or less individual signatures of particular climate forcings are recoverable from what superficially appears to be an unpromising jumble but actually "only" needs careful collation.

By these means we can examine the effects of particular variables of climate forcing. In particular we can see what happens when the climate is "kicked," how it "wobbles," how quickly it finds equilibrium after a shock and how that settling point may be offset from priors. This can be precious information in the context of the climate predicament we've created.

There's arguably no person better qualified than Professor Michael Mann to produce a snapshot of where we stand with learning how to ask questions of paleoclimate data, what we've been answered so far, and what to ask next. Dr. Mann brings us up to speed on the former two items and then provides advice on where we might go next, in Beyond the hockey stick: Climate lessons from the Common Era. More specifically, Prof. Mann points out how much we have yet to learn about "dynamical mechanisms and responses" or what many of us might call "how does it wiggle if we hit it with a hammer?" Here we're not talking about a bowl of gelatin but rather Earth and major system components of Earth's climate. Paleoclimate records probably have a lot to say about this if only we know the language and can see it.

This paper's synopses of dynamic components involved with climate and leading to directions to take for further research are distinguished by lucidity of exposition and a juicy collection of references, the latter always a bonus. Dr. Mann walks us through features of Earth's climate system amenable to illumination via paleoclimate data, concluding with some refreshingly circumspect discussion of the ultimate power of paleoclimate research to help our understanding. Open access, free to read, easy to read.

Housekeeping: Why the author count?

A few weeks ago New Research began featuring a "contributing author" statistic. This number reflects the total number of coauthors contributing to a given week's collection of papers. A natural question is why this should be important.

There is a general assumption in the scientific communications community that when we say "peer-reviewed academic research," all readers will automatically snap off a salute, but why should members of the general public not obsessed with research publications understand the significant differences between academic publishing and more popular fare? What happens if we assume wrongly on this account? The objectives of publishing systems vary widely and commensurately so do means and methods but this is not necessarily understood by a reader.

A distinguishing feature of academic research publications is their inherently collaborative nature, and the breadth and depth of any given article's underpinnings. To disagree with an article in the Journal of Geophysical Research is not the same thing qualitatively or quantitatively as disagreeing with a review of an automobile published in Car and Driver. There's nothing "wrong" about either publication mode and objective but there's a vast gulf between the two. What happens when folks don't grasp this distinction?

Where can misunderstandings about research publications lead us? As it happens, the author of this week's featured article perhaps offers a case in point about failure to appreciate the gravity of hasty, ill-prepared disagreement with a fundamentally robust system of investigation and disclosure.

A lot of people are researching Earth's climate but few of these workers are familiar to many of us. Delve into domains such as paleoclimate and public familiarity dips very low indeed. Professor Michael Mann is more likely to ring a bell, and as it happens his beat is principally paleoclimate, with roots in dendrochronology. About 23 years ago Mann, Hughes and Bradley published "Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries." Based on the best information at the time, "MBH98" data visualizations produced a searing climate change communication optic in the form of what became known as the "Hockey Stick" graph. The graph was an inevitability in the face of the data at hand yet took on a life of its own, as what can be fairly termed an explosive revelation. This intentionally dispassionate assessment and conveyance of data captivated emotions in all sorts of ways and in various quarters, and given Mann's particular context of lead author in a country and world actively at war with itself over climate matters, it's safe to say that Mann's prominence in the public eye ascended.

The dust still has not fully settled on the extensive broken furniture resulting from Mann et al's discovery in 1998, but while scarred by mistreatment Mann, Bradley and Hughes remain unscathed in the fundamental matter at hand: the validity of their original finding. Indeed as Mann points out in our highighted article, the original hockey stick is "longer and sturdier," replicated, refined and extended in a plethora of subsequent investigations finding the same basic signal recording in numerous paleorecords. It turns out that a small, energetic but crucially uninformed rabble of carpetbaggers, lawyers and politicians have no effective means to discredit the devestating graph that transfixed the public's attention and hence their own. Why is the subject of attack so durably high on the Mohs scale of hard findings? Not least because it was built very on solid foundations, leading us back to "why author numbers?" 

Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries derived direct support in 50 previously published works authored by 107 contributors. Those papers in turn have their own similar provenance, are bricks found worthy and added to a wall. Attempting to construct a logical, coherent and especially superior argument from a position of ignorance against such heft and bulk of genuine expertise seated in a tightly constructed monolith of consistency and successful description and explanation is a fool's errand, as the multi-tool jack-of-all-trades Ken Cuccinelli discovered. Similarly, dismissing Mann's latest work above as pointless would mean ignoring the inexorable research path of some 437 authors contributing to the 78 works cited by Mann in his review.

Our point with author counts is that unsupported argument with scientific publications is not a fair fight in the numeric sense. It's never "I'm arguing with this author." It's always "I'm arguing with hundreds,or thousands." There's no room for a solo act here; the inherent asymmetry of the fight lies in disproportionately huge numbers of "opponents." Author counts  add up to statistical reliability; gambling against a large crowd of experts while holding a thin or  empty hand will lose. But we may not even see this disparity and hence be able to understand its implications unless we're shown.  

105 articles by 674 contributing authors

Physical science of climate change, effects

Layered seawater intrusion and melt under grounded ice
Robel et al.
Open Access pdf 10.5194/tc-2021-262

Observations of climate change, effects

Understanding the cold season Arctic surface warming trend in recent decades
Zhang et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl094878

Siberian environmental change: Synthesis of recent studies and opportunities for networking
Callaghan et al. Ambio
Open Access pdf 10.1007/s13280-021-01626-7

Changes in the drought condition over northern East Asia and the connections with extreme temperature and precipitation indices
Sun et al. Global and Planetary Change
10.1016/j.gloplacha.2021.103645

A link between surface air temperature and extreme precipitation over Russia from station and reanalysis data
Aleshina et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac1cba

The Climatological Rise in Winter Temperature- and Dewpoint-Based Thaw Events and Their Impact on Snow Depth on Mount Washington, New Hampshire
Kelsey & Cinquino Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
10.1175/jamc-d-20-0254.1

Has the risk of a 1976 north-west European summer drought and heatwave event increased since the 1970s due to climate change?
Baker et al. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
10.1002/qj.4172

A shift in the diurnal timing and intensity of deep convection over the Congo Basin during the past 40?years
Alber et al. Atmospheric Research
10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105869

(provisional link) Drivers of exceptional coastal warming in the northeastern United States
10.1038/s41558-021-01159-7

Multi-Decadal Change in Western US Nighttime Vapor Pressure Deficit
Chiodi et al. Geophysical Research Letters
Open Access pdf 10.1029/2021gl092830

Instrumentation & observational methods of climate change, effects

A dynamically based method for estimating the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26° N from satellite altimetry
Sanchez-Franks et al. Ocean Science
Open Access pdf 10.5194/os-17-1321-2021

Footprint of Tropical Cyclone Cold Wakes on Top-of-atmosphere Radiation
Zhang et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl094705

Evaluating consistency between total column CO2 retrievals from OCO-2 and the in situ network over North America: implications for carbon flux estimation
Rastogi et al. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Open Access pdf 10.5194/acp-21-14385-2021

The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT)-America Mission
Davis et al. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Open Access 10.1002/essoar.10505721.1

The ERA5 Global Reanalysis: Preliminary Extension to 1950
Bell et al. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
10.1002/qj.4174

Estimating the uncertainty of Australian area-average temperature anomalies
Grainger et al. International Journal of Climatology
10.1002/joc.7392

Modeling, simulation & projection of climate change, effects

Global Hotspots for Future Absolute Temperature Extremes From CMIP6 Models
Ajjur & Al?Ghamdi Earth and Space Science
Open Access pdf 10.1029/2021ea001817

Global precipitation-related extremes at 1.5?°C and 2?°C of global warming targets: Projection and uncertainty assessment based on the CESM-LWR experiment
Ju et al. Atmospheric Research
10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105868

Double benefit of limiting global warming for tropical cyclone exposure
Geiger et al. Nature Climate Change
10.1038/s41558-021-01157-9

The clear sky downwelling longwave radiation at the surface in current and future climates
Shakespeare & Roderick Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
10.1002/qj.4176

Shutdown of Southern Ocean convection controls long-term greenhouse gas-induced warming
Gjermundsen et al. Nature Geoscience
10.1038/s41561-021-00825-x

Winter Euro-Atlantic climate modes: Future Scenarios from a CMIP6 Multi-Model Ensemble
Cusinato et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl094532

The Interaction between the Nocturnal Amazonian Low-Level Jet and Convection in CESM
Bai & Schumacher Journal of Climate
10.1175/jcli-d-21-0042.1

Absorbing aerosol decreases cloud cover in cloud-resolving simulations over Germany
Senf et al. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
Open Access 10.1002/qj.4169

(provisional link) Impacts of Arctic Sea Ice on Cold Season Atmospheric Variability and Trends Estimated from Observations and a Multimodel Large Ensemble
10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0578.1

(provisional link) Enhanced hydrological cycle increases ocean heat uptake and moderates transient climate change
10.1038/s41558-021-01152-0

Advances in climate & climate effects modeling, simulation & projection

Snow reconciles observed and simulated phase partitioning and increases cloud feedback
Cesana et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl094876

Combining CMIP data with a regional convection-permitting model and observations to project extreme rainfall under climate change
Klein et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac26f1

(provisional link) Assessing the potential for simplification in global climate model cloud microphysics

Agreement of analytical and simulation-based estimates of the required land depth in climate models
Steinert et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl094273

Submesoscale flows impact Agulhas leakage in ocean simulations
Schubert et al. Communications Earth & Environment
Open Access pdf 10.1038/s43247-021-00271-y

Causes of uncertainties in the representation of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone in CMIP5 models
Schmidt et al. Geomar Datasets Ocean Science
Open Access pdf 10.3289/sw_1_2021

Tracer and observationally-derived constraints on diapycnal diffusivities in an ocean state estimate
Trossman et al.
Open Access pdf 10.5194/os-2021-87

Response of Northern Hemisphere Weather and Climate to Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Resolution Independence in Polar Amplification Model Intercomparison Project (PAMIP) Simulations
Streffing et al. Journal of Climate
10.1175/jcli-d-19-1005.1

Approximating the Internal Variability of Bias-Corrected Global Temperature Projections with Spatial Stochastic Generators
Hu & Castruccio Journal of Climate
10.1175/jcli-d-21-0083.1

Cryosphere & climate change

Causes and Evolution of Winter Polynyas over North of Greenland
Lee et al.
Open Access pdf 10.5194/tc-2021-279

Layered seawater intrusion and melt under grounded ice
Robel et al.
Open Access pdf 10.5194/tc-2021-262

Isolated cavities dominate Greenland Ice Sheet dynamic response to lake drainage
Mejia et al. Geophysical Research Letters
Open Access 10.1002/essoar.10507339.1

On the importance of subsurface heat flux for estimating the mass balance of alpine glaciers
Yang et al. Global and Planetary Change
10.1016/j.gloplacha.2021.103651

Sea level & climate change

A Century of Tidal Variability in the North Pacific Extracted from Hourly Geomagnetic Observatory Measurements at Honolulu
Tyler Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl094435

Coastal subsidence increases vulnerability to sea level rise over twenty first century in Cartagena, Caribbean Colombia
Restrepo-Ángel et al. Scientific Reports
Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41598-021-98428-4

Paleoclimate

Beyond the hockey stick: Climate lessons from the Common Era
Mann Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Open Access pdf 10.1073/pnas.2112797118

Stalagmite carbon isotopes suggest deglacial increase in soil respiration in western Europe driven by temperature change
Lechleitner et al. Climate of the Past
Open Access pdf 10.31223/x5f60h

Biology & climate change

Temperature increase and frost decrease driving upslope elevational range shifts in Alpine grouse and hares
Schai?Braun et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.15909

Earlier snowmelt and reduced summer precipitation alter floral traits important to pollination
Powers et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.15908

Climate cascades affect coastal Antarctic seafloor ecosystem functioning
Lohrer et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.15907

Hydraulic adaptability promotes tree life spans under climate dryness
Xu et al. Global Ecology and Biogeography
10.1111/geb.13410

A doubling of stony coral cover on shallow forereefs at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize from 2014 to 2019
de Pablo et al. Scientific Reports
Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41598-021-96799-2

Great tit response to climate change
Bonamour Nature Climate Change International Journal of Biometeorology International Journal of Biometeorology
10.1038/s41558-021-01160-0

Variation in thermal performance curves for oxygen consumption and loss of critical behaviors in co-occurring species indicate the potential for ecosystem stability under ocean warming
Anderson & Falkenberg Marine Environmental Research
10.1016/j.marenvres.2021.105487

Atmospheric brightening counteracts warming-induced delays in autumn phenology of temperate trees in Europe
Wu et al. Global Ecology and Biogeography
10.1111/geb.13404

Pathogen infection influences the relationship between spring and autumn phenology at the seedling and leaf level
Mutz et al. Oecologia
10.1007/s00442-021-05044-0

Trait-mediated shifts and climate velocity decouple an endothermic marine predator and its ectothermic prey
Thorne & Nye Scientific Reports
Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41598-021-97318-z

GHG sources & sinks, flux, related geochemistry

Regional trends and drivers of the global methane budget
Stavert et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.15901

Saturation of global terrestrial carbon sink under a high warming scenario
Shi et al. Global Biogeochemical Cycles
10.1029/2020gb006800

Prolonged impacts of extreme precipitation events weakened annual ecosystem CO2 sink strength in a coastal wetland
Wei et al. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108655

Updated respiration routines alter spatio-temporal patterns of carbon cycling in a global land surface model
Butler et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac2528

What drives the temporal and spatial differences of CO2 emissions in the transport sector? Empirical evidence from municipalities in China
Liu et al. Energy Policy
10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112607

Ecosystem carbon balance in the Hawaiian Islands under different scenarios of future climate and land use change
Selmants et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac2347

(provisional link) Methane accumulation affected by particulate organic carbon in upper Yangtze deep valley dammed cascade reservoirs, China
10.1016/j.watres.2020.116193

Climate change can accelerate depletion of montane grassland C stocks
Wang et al. Global Biogeochemical Cycles
10.1029/2020gb006792

Virtual carbon emissions in the big cities of middle-income countries
Hachaichi & Baouni Urban Climate
10.1016/j.uclim.2021.100986

Evaluating consistency between total column CO2 retrievals from OCO-2 and the in situ network over North America: implications for carbon flux estimation
Rastogi et al. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Open Access pdf 10.5194/acp-21-14385-2021

(provisional link) Continuous CH4 and δ13CH4 measurements in London demonstrate under-reported natural gas leakage

Sustained methane emissions from China after 2012 despite declining coal production and rice-cultivated area
Sheng et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac24d1

Spatial and temporal variability of pCO2 and CO2 emissions from the Dong River in south China
Liu et al. Biogeosciences
Open Access pdf 10.5194/bg-18-5231-2021

The CO2 record at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory: a new opportunity to study processes on seasonal and inter-annual scales
Botia et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.15905

Direct GHG emissions from a pilot scale MBR-process treating municipal wastewater
Baresel et al. Advances in Climate Change Research
Open Access 10.1016/j.accre.2021.09.006

An intensification of atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to the surface temperature extremes in India
Gupta et al. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics
10.1007/s00703-021-00834-w

Carbon flows from trade in harvested wood products using different accounting approaches
Guan et al. Carbon Management
10.1080/17583004.2021.1981455

A robust initialization method for accurate soil organic carbon simulations
Kanari et al.
Open Access pdf 10.5194/bg-2021-246

Methane removal and the proportional reductions in surface temperature and ozone
Abernethy et al. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Open Access pdf 10.1098/rsta.2021.0104

CO2 removal & mitigation science & engineering

Assessing the sequestration time scales of some ocean-based carbon dioxide reduction strategies
Siegel et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac0be0

Bringing greenhouse gas removal down to earth: Stakeholder supply chain appraisals reveal complex challenges
Clery et al. Global Environmental Change
Open Access 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102369

A review on carbon pools and sequestration as influenced by long-term management practices in a rice–wheat cropping system
Dheri & Nazir Carbon Management
10.1080/17583004.2021.1976674

Prioritizing forestation based on biogeochemical and local biogeophysical impacts
Windisch et al. Nature Climate Change
10.1038/s41558-021-01161-z

Decarbonization

Low-carbon transformation of cities: Understanding the demand for dockless bike sharing in China
Li et al. Energy Policy
10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112631

Dynamic scenario simulations of carbon emission peak in China's city-scale urban residential building sector through 2050
Huo et al. Energy Policy
10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112612

A U.S.?China coal phaseout and the global 1.5 °C pathway
Cui et al. Advances in Climate Change Research
Open Access 10.1016/j.accre.2021.09.005

Black carbon

The outflow of Asian biomass burning carbonaceous aerosol into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in spring: radiative effects seen in a global model
Chavan et al. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Open Access pdf 10.5194/acp-21-14371-2021

Climate change communications & cognition

Tourists’ Perceptions of Climate: Application of Machine Learning to Climate and Weather Data from Chinese Social Media
Tao et al. Weather, Climate, and Society
10.1175/wcas-d-21-0039.1

Perceived links between climate change and weather forecast accuracy: new barriers to tools for agricultural decision-making
Guido et al. Climatic Change
10.1007/s10584-021-03207-9

Perspectives of climate change: A comparison of scientific understanding and local interpretations by different Western Siberian communities
Rakhmanova et al. Ambio
10.1007/s13280-021-01621-y

Transformations for climate change mitigation: A systematic review of terminology, concepts, and characteristics
Moore et al. WIREs Climate Change
Open Access pdf 10.1002/wcc.738

Agronomy, animal husbundry, food production & climate change

Climate change impacts and adaptation for dryland farming systems in Zimbabwe: a stakeholder-driven integrated multi-model assessment
Tui et al. Climatic Change
10.1007/s10584-021-03151-8

Links between food trade, climate change and food security in developed countries: A case study of Sweden
Horn et al. Ambio
10.1007/s13280-021-01623-w

A review on carbon pools and sequestration as influenced by long-term management practices in a rice–wheat cropping system
Dheri & Nazir Carbon Management
10.1080/17583004.2021.1976674

Can Tanzania’s adaptation measures prevent future maize yield decline? A simulation study from Singida region
Volk et al. Regional Environmental Change
Open Access pdf 10.1007/s10113-021-01812-z

Extreme climate increased crop nitrogen surplus in the United States
Zhang et al. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108632

Evaluating the long-term impact of projected climate on rice-lentil-groundnut cropping system in Lower Gangetic Plain of India using crop simulation modelling
Chandran M. A. et al. International Journal of Biometeorology
10.1007/s00484-021-02189-8

CO2 fluxes over two paddy fields with different management practices in Southern China
Liu et al. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108650

Tailored climate projections to assess site-specific vulnerability of tea production
Mittal et al. Climate Risk Management
Open Access 10.1016/j.crm.2021.100367

Exploring the solution space for different forestry management structures in New Zealand under climate change
Wreford et al. Environmental Science & Policy
Open Access 10.1016/j.envsci.2021.09.010

Hydrology & climate change

Global precipitation-related extremes at 1.5?°C and 2?°C of global warming targets: Projection and uncertainty assessment based on the CESM-LWR experiment
Ju et al. Atmospheric Research
10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105868

Climatic and landscape changes as drivers of environmental feedback that influence rainfall frequency in the United States
Moore et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.15876

(provisional link) Residual flood damage under intensive adaptation
10.1038/s41558-021-01158-8

Climate change mitigation public policy research

Does public participation lead to more ambitious and transformative local climate change planning?
Cattino & Reckien Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
Open Access 10.1016/j.cosust.2021.08.004

Virtual carbon emissions in the big cities of middle-income countries
Hachaichi & Baouni Urban Climate
10.1016/j.uclim.2021.100986

Climate change acts non-adoption as potential for renewed expertise and climate activism: the Belgian case
Orsini et al. Climate Policy
10.1080/14693062.2021.1978052

Convergent evolution: framework climate legislation in Australia
Christoff & Eckersley Climate Policy
10.1080/14693062.2021.1979927

Environmental co-benefits and trade-offs of climate mitigation strategies applied to net-zero-emission neighbourhoods
Lausselet & Brattebø The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
Open Access pdf 10.1007/s11367-021-01973-3

Climate change adaptation & adaptation public policy research

Does public participation lead to more ambitious and transformative local climate change planning?
Cattino & Reckien Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
Open Access 10.1016/j.cosust.2021.08.004

Improving the evidence base: A methodological review of the quantitative climate migration literature
Hoffmann et al. Global Environmental Change
Open Access 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102367

(provisional link) Extreme Heat Protections Should Include Incarcerated Workers

Are cities prepared for climate change? An analysis of adaptation readiness in 104 German cities
Otto et al. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change
Open Access pdf 10.1007/s11027-021-09971-4

(provisional link) Residual flood damage under intensive adaptation
10.1038/s41558-021-01158-8

Other

Climatology of cloud-top radiative cooling in marine shallow clouds
Zheng et al. Geophysical Research Letters
Open Access 10.1002/essoar.10507448.1

Climate: change, crisis, and contention
Perkins Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences
10.1007/s13412-021-00724-y

Funding flows for climate change research on Africa: where do they come from and where do they go?
Overland et al. Climate and Development
Open Access pdf 10.1080/17565529.2021.1976609

The fundamental links between climate change and marine plastic pollution
Ford et al. Science of The Total Environment
Open Access 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150392

Informed opinion, nudges & major initiatives

Beyond the hockey stick: Climate lessons from the Common Era
Mann Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Open Access pdf 10.1073/pnas.2112797118

Bringing greenhouse gas removal down to earth: Stakeholder supply chain appraisals reveal complex challenges
Clery et al. Global Environmental Change
Open Access 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102369

Improving the evidence base: A methodological review of the quantitative climate migration literature
Hoffmann et al. Global Environmental Change
Open Access 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102367

Climate change research and action must look beyond 2100
Lyon et al. Global Change Biology
Open Access pdf 10.1111/gcb.15871

Intergenerational inequities in exposure to climate extremes
Thiery et al. Science
10.1126/science.abi7339

 


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Posted by doug_bostrom on Thursday, 30 September, 2021


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