Climate Science Glossary

Term Lookup

Enter a term in the search box to find its definition.


Use the controls in the far right panel to increase or decrease the number of terms automatically displayed (or to completely turn that feature off).

Term Lookup


All IPCC definitions taken from Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Annex I, Glossary, pp. 941-954. Cambridge University Press.

Home Arguments Software Resources Comments The Consensus Project Translations About Support

Bluesky Facebook LinkedIn Mastodon MeWe

Twitter YouTube RSS Posts RSS Comments Email Subscribe

Climate's changed before
It's the sun
It's not bad
There is no consensus
It's cooling
Models are unreliable
Temp record is unreliable
Animals and plants can adapt
It hasn't warmed since 1998
Antarctica is gaining ice
View All Arguments...

New? Register here
Forgot your password?

Latest Posts


Skeptical Science New Research for Week #29, 2020

Posted on 22 July 2020 by Doug Bostrom

research stack86 articles

Physical science of global warming & effects

An assessment of Earth's climate sensitivity using multiple lines of evidence

Arctic continental margin sediments as possible Fe and Mn sources to seawater as sea ice retreats: Insights from the Eurasian Margin

Observations & observational methods of global warming & effects

Early?Warning Signals for Critical Temperature Transitions

Recent anthropogenic curtailing of Yellow River runoff and sediment load is unprecedented over the past 500 y (open access)

Observed Evidence for Steep Rise in the Extreme Flow of Western Himalayan Rivers

Fingerprints for Early Detection of Changes in the AMOC (open access)

Biogenic volatile organic compound ambient mixing ratios and emission rates in the Alaskan Arctic tundra (open access)

Satellite-observed monthly glacier and snow mass changes in southeast Tibet: implication for substantial meltwater contribution to the Brahmaputra (open access)

Comparing methods of uncertainty estimation in optimal fingerprinting

Interdecadal Change in the Effect of Spring Soil Moisture over the Indo-China Peninsula on the Following Summer Precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin

Changes of Compound Hot and Dry Extremes on Different Land Surface Conditions in China during 1957–2018

Harmonised observations of climate forcing across Africa: an assessment of existing approaches and their applicability

Instrumentation of global warming

Spectrally Resolved Fluxes from IASI Data: Retrieval Algorithm for Clear-Sky Measurements (open access)

Modeling & simulation of global warming & global warming effects

Response of surface shortwave cloud radiative effect to greenhouse gases and aerosols and its impact on summer maximum temperature (open access)

LGM climate forcing and ocean dynamical feedback and their implications for estimating climate sensitivity (open access)

Fast responses on pre-industrial climate from present-day aerosols in a CMIP6 multi-model study (open access)

Arctic Sea Ice in Two Configurations of the Community Earth System Model Version 2 (CESM2) During the 20th and 21st Centuries

Past variance and future projections of the environmental conditions driving western U.S. summertime wildfire burn area (open access)

Changes in future synoptic circulation patterns: consequences for extreme event attribution

Quantifying the influence of cloud radiative feedbacks on Arctic surface warming using cloud locking in an earth system model

Response of Vertical Velocities in Extratropical Precipitation Extremes to Climate Change

Linkage between Projected Precipitation and Atmospheric Thermodynamic Changes

Possible impacts of anthropogenic climate change to the upwelling in the South Brazil Bight (open access)

CO 2 -induced heat source changes over the Tibetan Plateau in boreal summer-part II: the effects of CO 2 direct radiation and uniform sea surface warming

Climate model advancement

The impact of performance filtering on climate feedbacks in a perturbed parameter ensemble (open access)

An observation-based evaluation and ranking of historical Earth System Model simulations for regional downscaling in the northwest North Atlantic Ocean (open access)

Apples and Oranges': on comparing simulated historic near surface temperatures changes with observations

Interdecadal and interannual evolution characteristics of the global surface precipitation anomaly shown by CMIP5 and CMIP6 models

Overestimated acceleration of the advective Brewer?Dobson circulation due to stratospheric cooling

A sensitivity analysis of the different setups of the RegCM4.5 model for the Carpathian Region

Cryosphere & climate change

Present-day and future Greenland Ice Sheet precipitation frequency from CloudSat observations and the Community Earth System Model (open access)

Results of the third Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (MISMIP+) (open access)

Estimation of the atmospheric ice content mass, spatial distribution and long?term changes based on the ERA5 reanalysis

Mid?Holocene Grounding Line Retreat and Re?advance at Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica

Biology & global warming

Fasting season length sets temporal limits for global polar bear persistence

Anthropogenic stressors impact fish sensory development and survival via thyroid disruption (open access)

Shifts in timing and duration of breeding for 73 boreal bird species over four decades (open access)

Global wind patterns and the vulnerability of wind-dispersed species to climate change

Potential distribution of an epiphytic bryophyte depends on climate and forest continuity

Site conditions exert more control than genetic differentiation on modulation of secondary growth and climate sensitivity of Pinus pinaster

Non?linearity in interspecific interactions in response to climate change: cod and haddock as an example

Landscape resistance mediates native fish species distribution shifts and vulnerability to climate change in riverscapes

Inferring CO 2 fertilization effect based on global monitoring land-atmosphere exchange with a theoretical model

GHG sources & sinks, flux

Riddles in the cold: Antarctic endemism and microbial succession impact methane cycling in the Southern Ocean

The carbon footprint of household energy use in the United States (open access)

Ocean Carbon Uptake Under Aggressive Emission Mitigation (open access)

Simulation of soil carbon dynamics in Australia under a framework that better connects spatially explicit data with R??? C (open access)

Observing carbon dioxide emissions over China's cities and industrial areas with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (open access)

The potential of Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 data to reduce the uncertainties in CO2 surface fluxes over Australia using a variational assimilation scheme (open access)

Anthropogenic nitrogen?induced changes in seasonal carbonate dynamics in a productive coastal environment

The CO2?equivalent balance of freshwater ecosystems is non?linearly related to productivity

Decade of experimental permafrost thaw reduces turnover of young carbon and increases losses of old carbon, without affecting the net carbon balance

Net landscape carbon balance of a tropical savanna: relative importance of fire and aquatic export in offsetting terrestrial production

The Influence of two land?surface hydrology schemes on the terrestrial carbon cycle of Africa: A regional climate model study

Increasing anthropogenic methane emissions arise equally from agricultural and fossil fuel sources

Effects of land use and cultivation histories on the distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in the area of the Northern Nile Delta in Egypt (open access)

CO2 mitigation science & engineering

A deep dive into the modelling assumptions for biomass with carbon capture and storage (BECCS): a transparency exercise

Geoengineering climate

Forcing dependence of atmospheric lapse rate changes dominates residual polar warming in solar radiation management climate scenarios

Black carbon

Measurement report: Evaluation of sources and mixing state of black carbon aerosol under the background of emission reduction in the North China Plain: implications for radiative effect (open access)

Climate change communications & cognition

Individual and local flooding experiences are differentially associated with subjective attribution and climate change concern

Agronomy & climate change

Impact of rainfall structure and climate change on soil and groundwater salinization

Climate Change effects on Agricultural Production: The Regional and Sectoral Economic Consequences in China (open access)

Simulation of the impacts of climate change on phenology, growth, and yield of various rice genotypes in humid sub-tropical environments using AquaCrop-Rice

Large zonal and temporal shifts in crops and cultivars coincide with warmer growing seasons in Finland (open access)

Irrigation and hydrometeorological extremes (open access)

Economics of climate change

The ultimate cost of carbon (open access)

The interdependence between CO 2 emissions, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energies, and service development: evidence from 65 countries

The evolution of transformational change in multilateral funds dedicated to financing adaptation to climate change (open access)

Global hunger and climate change adaptation through international trade (open access)

Economic losses from extreme weather in the U.S. Gulf Coast region: spatially differential contributions of climate hazard and socioeconomic exposure and vulnerability

Buy Coal or Kick-Start Green Innovation? Energy Policies in an Open Economy (open access)

Humans dealing with our global warming

Women’s vulnerability to climate-related risks to household water security in Centre-East, Burkina Faso (open access)

Demand for ports to 2050: Climate policy, growing trade and the impacts of sea?level rise (open access)

Urban climate awareness and urgency to adapt: An international overview

Identifying and prioritising adaptation options for a coastal freshwater supply and demand system under climatic and non-climatic changes

Climate change impact assessment on water resources under RCP scenarios: A case study in Mundaú River Basin, Northeastern Brazil

Building authority and legitimacy in transnational climate change governance: Evidence from the Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force

Culturally sensitive boundary work: A framework for linking knowledge to climate action

A cross-sectoral integrated assessment of alternatives for climate mitigation in Madagascar (open access)


Understanding of Contemporary Regional Sea?Level Change and the Implications for the Future

Quantifying regional surface energy responses to forest structural change in Nordic Fennoscandia

Summary of a workshop on extreme weather events in a warming world organized by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (open access)

Quantifying a Novel Climate Through Changes in PDO?Climate and PDO?Salmon Relationships

A novel method for assessing climate change impacts in ecotron experiments (open access)

Methane emissions reduce the radiative cooling effect of a subtropical estuarine mangrove wetland by half

ERA5?HEAT: A global gridded historical dataset of human thermal comfort indices from climate reanalysis (open access)

A spatial model for return values of warm temperature extremes in the High Arctic

Informed opinion & nudges

The ultimate cost of carbon (open access)

Existential Risks to Humanity Should Concern International Policymakers and More Could Be Done in Considering Them at the International Governance Level

The quiet opposition: How the pro-economy lobby influences climate policy


Legally obtaining copies of "paywalled" articles

We know it's frustrating that many articles we cite here are not free to read. One-off paid access fees are generally astronomically priced, suitable for such as "On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light but not as a gamble on unknowns. With a median world income of $US 9,3733, for most of us $US 42 is significant money to wager against a small marginal cost. 

Economists of a scientific bent may someday help scientific publishers bring science to their business activities as reflected in rational à la carte article disclosure fees. Meanwhile there are several possible paths to equality of information access short of paying an objectively and crushingly large fee for the unveiling of a single article:

  • Unpaywall offers a browser extension for Chrome that automatically indicates when an article is freely accessible and provides immediate access without further trouble. Unpaywall is also unscammy, works well, is itself offered free to use. The organizers (a legitimate nonprofit) report about a 50% success rate
  • If you're interested in an article and it is not listed here as "open access," be sure to check the link anyway. Due to time constraints open access articles are identified by us via  imperfect machine analysis. Compared with Unpaywall statistics we successfully  identify roughly 2/3rds of open access articles. There's definitely gold left in the ground. 


Please let us know if you're aware of an article you think may be of interest for Skeptical Science research news, or if we've missed something that may be important. Send your input to Skeptical Science via our contact form.

Journals covered

A list of journals we cover may be found here. We welcome pointers to omissions, new journals etc.

Previous edition

The previous edition of Skeptical Science New Research may be found here.

0 0

Printable Version  |  Link to this page


There have been no comments posted yet.

You need to be logged in to post a comment. Login via the left margin or if you're new, register here.

The Consensus Project Website


(free to republish)

© Copyright 2024 John Cook
Home | Translations | About Us | Privacy | Contact Us