Climate Science Glossary

Term Lookup

Enter a term in the search box to find its definition.

Settings

Use the controls in the far right panel to increase or decrease the number of terms automatically displayed (or to completely turn that feature off).

Term Lookup

Settings


All IPCC definitions taken from Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Annex I, Glossary, pp. 941-954. Cambridge University Press.

Home Arguments Software Resources Comments The Consensus Project Translations About Donate

Twitter Facebook YouTube Pinterest MeWe

RSS Posts RSS Comments Email Subscribe


Climate's changed before
It's the sun
It's not bad
There is no consensus
It's cooling
Models are unreliable
Temp record is unreliable
Animals and plants can adapt
It hasn't warmed since 1998
Antarctica is gaining ice
View All Arguments...



Username
Password
New? Register here
Forgot your password?

Latest Posts

Archives

Skeptical Science New Research for Week #37, 2020

Posted on 16 September 2020 by doug_bostrom

2,082,476,000,000,000

Viability of greenhouse gas removal via the artificial addition of volcanic ash to the ocean  (not open access, unfortunately) walks us through the numbers on a particular means of CO2 removal, addition of volcanic tephra to the ocean. The mechanism is straight chemistry and the cost is fully an order of magnitude less than other proposed methods. For the world population and emissions of approximately 4.982 metric tons per capita (2014) we're looking at the number above in US dollars per year to entirely solve our global emissions problem (assuming the system would scale so large). Roughly US$ 2 quadrillion/year, done cheap. Surely  there's a less expensive way? What could it be?

In fairness to authors Longman, Palmer and Gernon, they're certainly not proposing to entirely solve our CO2 problem with this intriguing and objectively efficient method. The admirable affordability of the scheme resulting still in such ballooning numbers is simply another indicator that we need to start with reduction of CO2 emissions, push the biggest and easiest button. 

Housekeeping

Until this edition of New Research we've been using an indigenous tool to assist with identifying open access documents. Recently somebody dropped a clue brick on our heads (thanks David!) and made us aware of Unpaywall.org. Unpaywall operates a sophisticated, legally respectful system to identify open access publications. Further investigation revealed an API for accessing their database. Although our own system performed remarkably well in comparison to Unpaywall, it required steady drain from a limited pool of time to maintain and as well was never going to match Unpaywall results. With this edition we've integrated the Unpaywall API. 

Practical effects:

  • As before, open access items are flagged.
  • Items found in the Unpaywall system will feature at minimum a permanent DOI access link, one that does not change when/if a publication changes notional URLs leading to articles.
  • When available, direct links to PDF versions of articles are presented. Clicking "PDF" for a article offering this option will directly load a paper.
  • As Unpaywall does not catch preprints notices that we cover, each edition of New Research will be reprocessed some weeks after publication, to update meta information.

98 Articles

Observations of global warming & effects

Precipitation–Radiation–Circulation Feedback Processes Associated with Structural Changes of the ITCZ in a Warming Climate during 1980–2014: An Observational Portrayal

Temperature trends in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau constrained by ice core water isotopes over the past 7,000 years

Fast local warming of sea-surface is the main factor of recent deoxygenation in the Arabian Sea
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.5194/bg-2020-325

Weakening Atlantic overturning circulation causes South Atlantic salinity pile-up
DOI: 10.1038/s41558-020-0897-7

 

Contrasting recent trends in Southern Hemisphere Westerlies across different ocean basins
DOI: 10.1002/essoar.10503156.1

Observed ocean bottom temperature variability at four sites in the northwestern Argentine Basin: Evidence of decadal deep/abyssal warming amidst hourly to interannual variability during 2009‐2019
DOI: 10.1002/essoar.10503156.1

Analysis of Record-High Temperature over Southeast Coastal China in Winter 2018/19: The Combined Effect of Mid- to High-Latitude Circulation Systems and SST Forcing over the North Atlantic and Tropical Western Pacific
DOI: 10.1002/essoar.10503156.1

Changes in sea ice and future accessibility along the Arctic Northeast Passage
DOI: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2020.103319

Potential linkages of extreme climate events with vegetation and large-scale circulation indices in an endorheic river basin in northwest China
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.105256

Warm nights drive Coffea arabica ripening in Tanzania
DOI: 10.1007/s00484-020-02016-6

Investigating changes in rainfall seasonality across South Africa: 1987–2016
DOI: 10.1007/s00484-020-02016-6

Trend analysis of evapotranspiration over Iran based on NEX‐GDDP high‐resolution dataset
DOI: 10.1007/s00484-020-02016-6

Geographic variation in responses of kelp forest communities of the California Current to recent climatic changes
DOI: 10.1007/s00484-020-02016-6

Parasitoids indicate major climate‐induced shifts in arctic communities
DOI: 10.1007/s00484-020-02016-6

Climate warming restructures an aquatic food web over 28 years
DOI: 10.1007/s00484-020-02016-6

Rapid deep ocean deoxygenation and acidification threaten life on Northeast Pacific seamounts
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15307

Rainy season drought severity trend analysis of the Indonesian Maritime Continent
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15307

Intensification of the East Asian summer monsoon lifecycle based on observation and CMIP6
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab9b3f

Climate effects on land management and stream nitrogen concentrations in small agricultural catchments in Norway
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s13280-020-01359-z

Instrumentation & observational methods of climate & global warming

Seasonal reconstructions coupling ice core data and an isotope-enabled climate model – methodological implications of seasonality, climate modes and selection of proxy data
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.5194/cp-16-1737-2020

Two centuries of hydroclimatic variability reconstructed from tree‐ring records over the Amazonian Andes of Peru
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.5194/cp-16-1737-2020

Evaluation of atmospheric and terrestrial effects in the carbon cycle for forest and grassland ecosystems using a remote sensing and modeling approach
DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108187

Modeling & simulation of global warming & global warming effects

Extremes become routine in an emerging new Arctic
DOI: 10.1038/s41558-020-0892-z

Poleward Shift of Northern Subtropics in winter: Time of Emergence of Zonal versus Regional Signals
DOI: 10.1038/s41558-020-0892-z

Changes in global and regional characteristics of heat stress waves in the 21st century
DOI: 10.1038/s41558-020-0892-z

Quantifying the impact of wind and surface humidity induced surface heat exchange on the circulation shift in response to increased CO2
DOI: 10.1038/s41558-020-0892-z

Characterization of long period return values of extreme daily temperature and precipitation in the CMIP6 models: Part 1, model evaluation
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1016/j.wace.2020.100283

Characterization of long period return values of extreme daily temperature and precipitation in the CMIP6 models: Part 2, projections of future change
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1016/j.wace.2020.100284

Extreme climate events under global warming in northern Fars Province, southern Iran
DOI: 10.1007/s00704-020-03362-6

Future extreme hourly wet bulb temperatures using downscaled climate model projections of temperature and relative humidity
DOI: 10.1007/s00704-020-03368-0

Global aridity changes due to differences in surface energy and water balance between 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab9db3

Climate model advancement

Evaluating the Credibility of Downscaling: Integrating Scale, Trend, Extreme, and Climate Event into a Diagnostic Framework
DOI: 10.1175/jamc-d-20-0078.1

Pattern Recognition Methods to Separate Forced Responses from Internal Variability in Climate Model Ensembles and Observations
DOI: 10.1175/jcli-d-19-0855.1

Robustness of CMIP6 historical global mean temperature simulations: trends, long‐term persistence, autocorrelation, and distributional shape
DOI: 10.1175/jcli-d-19-0855.1

The performance of CMIP6 versus CMIP5 in simulating temperature extremes over the global land surface
DOI: 10.1175/jcli-d-19-0855.1

Regional climate change projections from NA-CORDEX and their relation to climate sensitivity
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s10584-020-02835-x

Assessing uncertainties in the regional projections of precipitation in CORDEX-AFRICA
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s10584-020-02833-z

The incorporation of the Tripleclouds concept into the δ-Eddington two-stream radiation scheme: solver characterization and its application to shallow cumulus clouds
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s10584-020-02833-z

Seasonal transition dates can reveal biases in Arctic sea ice simulations
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.5194/tc-14-2977-2020

Reconciling the relationship between the AMOC and Labrador Sea in OSNAP observations and climate models
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.5194/tc-14-2977-2020

Comparing Methods to Constrain Future European Climate Projections Using a Consistent Framework
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1175/jcli-d-19-0953.1

Cryosphere & climate change

Damage accelerates ice shelf instability and mass loss in Amundsen Sea Embayment 
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912890117

CASEarth Poles: Big Data for the Three Poles
DOI: 10.1175/bams-d-19-0280.1

Revealing the former bed of Thwaites Glacier using sea-floor bathymetry: implications for warm-water routing and bed controls on ice flow and buttressing
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.5194/tc-14-2883-2020

New gravity-derived bathymetry for the Thwaites, Crosson, and Dotson ice shelves revealing two ice shelf populations
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.5194/tc-14-2869-2020

Low elevation of Svalbard glaciers drives high mass loss variability
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-18356-1

Paleoclimate

The seawater carbon inventory at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-18356-1

A Bayesian framework for emergent constraints: case studies of climate sensitivity with PMIP
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.5194/cp-16-1715-2020

Evidence of Southern Ocean influence into the far Northwest Pacific (Northern Emperor Rise) since the Bølling–Allerød warming
DOI: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2020.103315

Biology & global warming

Latitudinal gradient in the respiration quotient and the implications for ocean oxygen availability
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004986117

Climate change increases predation risk for a keystone species of the boreal forest
DOI: 10.1038/s41558-020-00908-4

Potential linkages of extreme climate events with vegetation and large-scale circulation indices in an endorheic river basin in northwest China
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.105256

Spatial structure in protected forest‐grassland mosaics: Exploring futures under climate change
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.105256

The methylome is altered for plants in a high CO2 world: Insights into the response of a wild plant population to multigenerational exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.105256

Geographic variation in responses of kelp forest communities of the California Current to recent climatic changes
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.105256

Wildfire and the ecological niche: Diminishing habitat suitability for an indicator species within semi‐arid ecosystems
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15300

Parasitoids indicate major climate‐induced shifts in arctic communities
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15300

Climate warming restructures an aquatic food web over 28 years
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15300

Research challenges and opportunities for using big data in global change biology
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15317

The role of connectivity in the interplay between climate change and the spread of alien fish in a large Mediterranean river
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15320

Using climate‐driven leaf phenology and growth to improve predictions of GPP in North America forests
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15320

The missing pieces for better future predictions in subarctic ecosystems: A Torneträsk case study
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s13280-020-01381-1

GHG sources & sinks, flux

The soil microbial carbon pump: From conceptual insights to empirical assessments
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15319

Overstated carbon emission reductions from voluntary REDD+ projects in the Brazilian Amazon
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004334117

Sources and processes sustaining surface CO2 and CH4 fluxes in a tropical reservoir: the importance of water column metabolism
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004334117

Global trends and European emissions of tetrafluoromethane (CF4), hexafluoroethane (C2F6) and octafluoropropane (C3F8)
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004334117

Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance in a North Carolina, USA, Salt Marsh
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004334117

Herbivore assemblage as an important factor modulating grazing effects on ecosystem carbon fluxes in a meadow steppe in northeast China
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004334117

Stormflows drive stream carbon concentration, speciation and dissolved organic matter composition in coastal temperate rainforest watersheds
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004334117

The impact of seasonal and annual climate variations on the carbon uptake capacity of a deciduous forest within the Great Lakes Region of Canada
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004334117

Impact of partial harvest on CH4 and N2O balances of a drained boreal peatland forest
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004334117

Hydrometeorological sensitivities of net ecosystem carbon dioxide and methane exchange of an Amazonian palm swamp peatland
DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108167

Evaluation of atmospheric and terrestrial effects in the carbon cycle for forest and grassland ecosystems using a remote sensing and modeling approach
DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108187

Stocks and losses of soil organic carbon from Chinese vegetated coastal habitats
DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108187

Rapid deep ocean deoxygenation and acidification threaten life on Northeast Pacific seamounts
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15307

CO2 removal & mitigation science & engineering

What have we learnt about CO2 leakage from CO2 release field experiments, and what are the gaps for the future?
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15307

Climate mitigation and intensified forest management in Norway: To what extent are surface waters safeguarded?
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s13280-020-01357-1

Viability of greenhouse gas removal via the artificial addition of volcanic ash to the ocean
DOI: 10.1016/j.ancene.2020.100264

Geoengineering climate

Harnessing Stratospheric Diffusion Barriers for Enhanced Climate Geoengineering
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.5194/acp-2020-696

Black carbon

Vertical profiles of light absorption and scattering associated with black carbon particle fractions in the springtime Arctic above 79° N
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.5194/acp-20-10545-2020

Climate change communications & cognition

Dominant counter-frames in influential climate contrarian European think tanks
DOI: 10.1007/s10584-020-02820-4

Global Climate Change or National Climate Changes? An Analysis of the Performance of Online Issue Publics in Integrating Global Issues
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1002/9781118786352.wbieg0922

How do farmers perceive climate change? A systematic review
DOI: 10.1007/s10584-020-02814-2

Traditional livelihoods under a changing climate: herder perceptions of climate change and its consequences in South Gobi, Mongolia
DOI: 10.1007/s10584-020-02851-x

How cognitive links and decision-making capacity shape sectoral experts’ recognition of climate knowledge for adaptation
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s10584-020-02859-3

Opinions of 12 to 13-year-olds in Austria and Australia on the concern, cause and imminence of climate change
DOI: 10.1007/s13280-020-01356-2

Agronomy & climate change

How do farmers perceive climate change? A systematic review
DOI: 10.1007/s10584-020-02814-2

Assessment of weather-yield relations of starchy maize at different scales in Peru to support the NDC implementation
DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108154

Warm nights drive Coffea arabica ripening in Tanzania
DOI: 10.1007/s00484-020-02016-6

Vulnerability of hop‐yields due to compound drought and heat events over European key‐hop regions
DOI: 10.1007/s00484-020-02016-6

Climate effects on land management and stream nitrogen concentrations in small agricultural catchments in Norway
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s13280-020-01359-z

Economics & finance of climate change & mitigation

Climate change, crops and commodity traders: subnational trade analysis highlights differentiated risk exposure
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s10584-020-02857-5

Climate change mitigation & adaptation public policy research

Climate mitigation and intensified forest management in Norway: To what extent are surface waters safeguarded?
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s13280-020-01357-1

Assessment of adaptation, policy, and capacity building outcomes from 14 processes
DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2020.09.003

Climate change adaptation

Interacting Infrastructure Disruptions Due to Environmental Events and Long‐Term Climate Change
DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2020.09.003

Mapping the effectiveness of nature‐based solutions for climate change adaptation
DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2020.09.003

A rising tide of adaptation action: Comparing two coastal regions of Aotearoa-New Zealand
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1016/j.crm.2020.100244

Other

The roles of storminess and sea level rise in decadal barrier island evolution
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1016/j.crm.2020.100244

Risk of extreme high fatalities due to weather and climate hazards and its connection to large-scale climate variability
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s10584-020-02825-z

Practising everyday climate cultures: understanding the cultural politics of climate change
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s10584-020-02863-7

Informed opinion, nudges & major initiatives

Research challenges and opportunities for using big data in global change biology
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15317

CASEarth Poles: Big Data for the Three Poles
DOI: 10.1175/bams-d-19-0280.1

Convergence, continuity, and community: a framework for enabling emerging leaders to build climate solutions in agriculture, forestry, and aquaculture
DOI: 10.1007/s10584-020-02844-w

Turbulent transformation: abrupt societal disruption and climate resilient development
DOI: 10.1080/17565529.2020.1799738

The missing pieces for better future predictions in subarctic ecosystems: A Torneträsk case study
Open Access PDF DOI: 10.1007/s13280-020-01381-1

 


Obtaining articles wihout journal subscriptions

We know it's frustrating that many articles we cite here are not free to read. One-off paid access fees are generally astronomically priced, suitable for such as "On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light but not as a gamble on unknowns. With a median world income of US$ 9,3733, for most of us US$ 42 is significant money to wager against a small marginal cost. 

  • Unpaywall offers a browser extension for Chrome that automatically indicates when an article is freely accessible and provides immediate access without further trouble. Unpaywall is also unscammy, works well, is itself offered free to use. The organizers (a legitimate nonprofit) report about a 50% success rate
  • The weekly New Research catch is checked against the Unpaywall database with accessible items being flagged. Especially for just-published articles this mechansim may fail. If you're interested in an article title and it is not listed here as "open access," be sure to check the link anyway. 

How is New Research assembled?

Most articles appearing here are found via  RSS feeds from journal publishers, filtered by search terms to produce raw output for assessment of relevance. 

Relevant articles are then queried against the Unpaywall database, to identify open access articles and expose useful metadata for articles appearing in the database. 

The objective of New Research isn't to cast a tinge on scientific results, to color readers' impressions. Hence candidate articles are assessed via two metrics only:

  • Was an article deemed of sufficient merit by a team of journal editors and peer reviewers? The fact of journal RSS output assigns a "yes" to this automatically. 
  • Is an article relevant to the topic of anthropogenic climate change? Due to filter overlap with other publication topics of inquiry about 1/4 of RSS output makes the cut.

Suggestions

Please let us know if you're aware of an article you think may be of interest for Skeptical Science research news, or if we've missed something that may be important. Send your input to Skeptical Science via our contact form.

Journals covered

A list of journals we cover may be found here. We welcome pointers to omissions, new journals etc.

Previous edition

The previous edition of Skeptical Science New Research may be found here.

0 0

Printable Version  |  Link to this page

Comments

Comments 1 to 3:

  1. Great to see the update with Unpaywall! Two comments:

    1. Sometimes I see 'PDF' but it's not a clickable link, e.g. for Characterization of long period return values of extreme daily temperature and precipitation in the CMIP6 models: Part 1, model evaluation and Global aridity changes due to differences in surface energy and water balance between 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming.

    2. Is it necessary to include the DOI URL separately from the hyperlinked title? You could just do away with the journal-specific URL altogether and make the DOI URL be the URL for the hyperlinked title, no?
    0 0
  2. 3. Also hovering over 'PDF' opens an explainer on the side for probability density function :P

    0 0
  3. Thanks for the spots on PDF and the suggestion, Dawei. :-)

    I thought of the same thing regarding DOI, then bumped into "lossy" capture aspect. For the time being I'd like to be conservative about preserving original provenance as captured in the journal URL.

    The "PDF aliasing" issue— hmm. 

    0 0

You need to be logged in to post a comment. Login via the left margin or if you're new, register here.



The Consensus Project Website

THE ESCALATOR

(free to republish)


© Copyright 2020 John Cook
Home | Links | Translations | About Us | Privacy | Contact Us