Climate Science Glossary

Term Lookup

Enter a term in the search box to find its definition.

Settings

Use the controls in the far right panel to increase or decrease the number of terms automatically displayed (or to completely turn that feature off).

Term Lookup

Settings


All IPCC definitions taken from Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Annex I, Glossary, pp. 941-954. Cambridge University Press.

Home Arguments Software Resources Comments The Consensus Project Translations About Support

Twitter Facebook YouTube Pinterest MeWe

RSS Posts RSS Comments Email Subscribe


Climate's changed before
It's the sun
It's not bad
There is no consensus
It's cooling
Models are unreliable
Temp record is unreliable
Animals and plants can adapt
It hasn't warmed since 1998
Antarctica is gaining ice
View All Arguments...



Username
Password
New? Register here
Forgot your password?

Latest Posts

Archives

Skeptical Science New Research for Week #49, 2021

Posted on 9 December 2021 by Doug Bostrom, Marc Kodack

112 articles in 110 journals by 676 contributing authors

Physical science of climate change, effects

On the importance of sea surface temperature for aerosol-induced brightening of marine clouds and implications for cloud feedback in a future warmer climate
Zhou et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl095896

Role of the Bay of Bengal warming in the Indian summer monsoon rainfall trend
Goswami et al. Climate Dynamics
10.1007/s00382-021-06068-1

Observations of climate change, effects

Atlantic tropical cyclones downscaled from climate reanalyses show increasing activity over past 150 years
Emanuel Nature Communications
Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41467-021-27364-8

Prolonged Marine Heatwaves in the Arctic: 1982−2020
Huang et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl095590

Changing Impacts of Tropical Cyclones on East and Southeast Asian Inland Regions in the Past and a Globally Warmed Future Climate
Chen et al. Frontiers in Earth Science
Open Access pdf 10.3389/feart.2021.769005

Atmosphere similarity patterns in boreal summer show an increase of persistent weather conditions connected to hydro-climatic risks
Hoffmann et al. Scientific Reports
Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41598-021-01808-z

Quantifying the Human Influence on the Intensity of Extreme 1- and 5-Day Precipitation Amounts at Global, Continental, and Regional Scales
Sun et al. Journal of Climate
10.1175/jcli-d-21-0028.1

Ongoing Drainage Reorganization Driven by Rapid Lake Growths on the Tibetan Plateau
Liu et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl095795

Reconstructed temperature change in late summer over the eastern Tibetan Plateau since 1867?CE and the role of anthropogenic forcing
Yin et al. Global and Planetary Change
Open Access 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2021.103715

Characterization of interannual and seasonal variability of hydro-climatic trends in the Upper Indus Basin
Liaqat et al. Theoretical and Applied Climatology
10.1007/s00704-021-03850-3

Multi-decadal (1953–2017) rock glacier kinematics analysed by high-resolution topographic data in the upper Kaunertal, Austria
Fleischer et al. The Cryosphere
Open Access pdf 10.5194/tc-15-5345-2021

Super Droughts over East Asia since 1960 under the Impacts of Global Warming and Decadal Variability
Wang et al. International Journal of Climatology
10.1002/joc.7483

Do recent meteorological drought events in central Italy result from long term trend or increasing variability?
Bek et al. International Journal of Climatology
Open Access 10.1007/s10792-021-02041-3

Recent observed changes in extreme high-temperature events and associated meteorological conditions over Africa
Iyakaremye et al. International Journal of Climatology
10.1002/joc.7485

Response to concerns about the African fire trends controlled by precipitation over recent decades
Wei et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.16020

Global increase in wildfire risk due to climate-driven declines in fuel moisture
Ellis et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.16006

Reduction in Precipitation Seasonality in China from 1960 to 2018
Mao et al. Journal of Climate
Open Access pdf 10.1175/jcli-d-21-0324.1

Instrumentation & observational methods of climate change, effects

River ice phenology and thickness from satellite altimetry: potential for ice bridge road operation and climate studies
Zakharova et al. The Cryosphere
Open Access pdf 10.5194/tc-15-5387-2021

Reconciling high resolution climate datasets using KrigR
Davy & Kusch Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac39bf

A global inventory of historical documentary evidence related to climate since the 15th century
Burgdorf
Open Access pdf 10.5194/cp-2021-165

Modeling, simulation & projection of climate change, effects

Synoptic circulation changes over Central Europe from 1900 to 2100 – Reanalyses and CMIP6
Herrera?Lormendez et al. International Journal of Climatology
10.1002/joc.7481

Changes in extreme precipitation across South Asia for each 0.5?°C of warming from 1.5?°C to 3?°C above pre-industrial levels
Mondal et al. Atmospheric Research
10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105961

Pseudo Global Warming Sensitivity Experiments of Subtropical Cyclone Anita (2010) under RCP 8.5 Scenario
Nakamura & Mäll Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
10.1029/2021jd035261

How does the high-latitude thermal forcing in one hemisphere affect the other hemisphere?
Shin & Kang Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl095870

CMIP6 models underestimate the Holton-Tan effect
Elsbury et al. Geophysical Research Letters
Open Access 10.1029/2021gl094083

Future trends of arctic surface wind speeds and their relationship with sea ice in CMIP5 climate model simulations
Vavrus & Alkama Alkama Climate Dynamics
Open Access 10.1007/s00382-021-06071-6

Atmospheric Rivers Bring More Frequent and Intense Extreme Rainfall Events over East Asia under Global Warming
Kamae et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl096030

Advancement of climate & climate effects modeling, simulation & projection GCMA

Constraining decadal variability yields skillful projections of near-term climate change
Mahmood et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl094915

The mechanisms of cloudiness evolution responsible for equilibrium climate sensitivity in climate model INM-CM4-8
Volodin Geophysical Research Letters
Open Access pdf 10.1029/2021gl096204

Estimating radiative forcing with a nonconstant feedback parameter and linear response
Fredriksen et al. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Open Access 10.1002/essoar.10504723.1

Land surface models significantly underestimate the impact of land-use changes on global evapotranspiration
Wang et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac38db

New Techniques for Improving Climate Models, Predictions and Projections
Collins et al. Frontiers in Climate JOURNAL OF MECHANICS OF CONTINUA AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES
Open Access pdf 10.3389/fclim.2021.811205

Cryosphere & climate change

Development of ice-shelf estuaries promotes fractures and calving
Boghosian et al. Nature Geoscience
10.1038/s41561-021-00837-7

River ice phenology and thickness from satellite altimetry: potential for ice bridge road operation and climate studies
Zakharova et al. The Cryosphere
Open Access pdf 10.5194/tc-15-5387-2021

Multi-decadal (1953–2017) rock glacier kinematics analysed by high-resolution topographic data in the upper Kaunertal, Austria
Fleischer et al. The Cryosphere
Open Access pdf 10.5194/tc-15-5345-2021

Future Changes in Snowpack, Snowmelt, and Runoff Potential Extremes Over North America
Cho et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl094985

Assessing uncertainty in past ice and climate evolution: overview, stepping-stones, and challenges
Tarasov & Goldstein
Open Access pdf 10.5194/cp-2021-145

A multi-ice-core, annual-layer-counted Greenland ice-core chronology for the last 3800 years: GICC21
Sinnl et al.
Open Access pdf 10.5194/cp-2021-155

Sea level & climate change

Changing impacts of Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone tsunamis in California under future sea-level rise
Dura et al. Nature Communications
Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41467-021-27445-8

Paleoclimate

Retreat and Regrowth of the Greenland Ice Sheet During the Last Interglacial as Simulated by the CESM2-CISM2 Coupled Climate–Ice Sheet Model
Sommers et al. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology
10.1029/2021pa004272

Biology & climate change

Survival of climate warming through niche shifts: Evidence from frogs on tropical islands
Labisko et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.15997

Glacier retreat creating new Pacific salmon habitat in western North America
Pitman et al. Nature Communications
Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41467-021-26897-2

Adaptive strategies of sponges to deoxygenated oceans
Micaroni et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.16013

Site index as a predictor of the effect of climate warming on boreal tree growth
Pau et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.16030

(provisional link) Complex range shifts among forest functional types under the contemporary warming
10.1371/journal.pone.0118069

Resistance and change in a High Arctic ecosystem, NW Greenland: Differential sensitivity of ecosystem metrics to 15 years of experimental warming and wetting
Jespersen et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.16027

(provisional link) Energetic and reproductive costs of coral recovery in divergent bleaching responses
10.1038/s41598-021-02807-w

Mismatch-induced growth reductions in a clade of Arctic-breeding shorebirds are rarely mitigated by increasing temperatures
Lameris et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.16025

Limited integration of biodiversity within climate policy: Evidence from the Alliance of Small Island States
Strauß et al. Environmental Science & Policy
10.1016/j.envsci.2021.11.019

Intraspecific diversity alters the relationship between climate change and parasitism in a polymorphic ectotherm
Wu et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.16018

Diazotrophy as a key driver of the response of marine net primary productivity to climate change
Bopp et al.
Open Access pdf 10.5194/bg-2021-320

Biodiversity promotes ecosystem functioning despite environmental change
Hong et al. Ecology Letters
10.1111/ele.13936

Understanding and managing the interactive impacts of growth in urban land use and climate change on freshwater biota: a case study using the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Coleman et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.16015

Multi-model projections of tree species performance in Quebec, Canada under future climate change
Yan et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.16014

Vegetation green-up date is more sensitive to permafrost degradation than climate change in spring across the northern permafrost region
Wang & Liu Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.16011

Widespread Mismatch Between Phenology and Climate in Human-Dominated Landscapes
Song et al. AGU Advances
Open Access pdf 10.1029/2021av000431

Marine heatwave challenges solutions to human–wildlife conflict
Samhouri et al. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Open Access pdf 10.1098/rspb.2021.1607

GHG sources & sinks, flux, related geochemistry

A global overview of studies about land management, land-use change, and climate change effects on soil organic carbon
Beillouin et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.15998

(provisional link) Thawing Yedoma permafrost is a neglected nitrous oxide source
10.1038/s41467-021-27386-2

Limitations of the radon tracer method (RTM) to estimate regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions – a case study for methane in Heidelberg
Levin et al. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Open Access pdf 10.5194/acp-21-17907-2021

The 2019 Methane Budget And Uncertainties At 1 Degree Resolution And Each Country Through Bayesian Integration Of GOSAT Total Column Methane Data And A Priori Inventory Estimates
Worden et al.
Open Access pdf 10.5194/acp-2021-955

The fate of carbon in check dam sediments: A review
Yao et al. Earth-Science Reviews
10.1016/j.earscirev.2021.103889

Beyond bulk: Density fractions explain heterogeneity in global soil carbon abundance and persistence
Heckman et al. Global Change Biology
10.1111/gcb.16023

The carbon emissions level of China’s service industry: an analysis of characteristics and influencing factors
Sun et al. Environment, Development and Sustainability
10.1007/s10668-021-02001-y

Characterizing methane emission hotspots from thawing permafrost
Elder et al. Global Biogeochemical Cycles
10.1002/essoar.10505450.1

Climate drives modeled forest carbon cycling resistance and resilience in the Upper Great Lakes Region, USA
Dorheim et al. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences
10.1029/2021jg006587

Soil organic carbon stabilization mechanisms and temperature sensitivity in old terraced soils
Zhao et al. Biogeosciences
Open Access pdf 10.5194/bg-18-6301-2021

(provisional link) Identifying Data Needed to Reduce Parameter Uncertainty in a Coupled Microbial Soil C and N Decomposition Model
10.1029/2021JG006593

Decreasing methane emissions from China’s coal mining with rebounded coal production
Gao et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac38d8

Carbon stocks differ among land-uses in agroforestry systems in western Canada
Ma et al. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108756

Criteria for assessing carbon emissions peaks at provincial level in China
Wang et al. Advances in Climate Change Research
Open Access 10.1016/j.accre.2021.11.006

Non-flooded riparian Amazon trees are a regionally significant methane source
Gauci et al. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Open Access pdf 10.1098/rsta.2020.0446

Strong Southern Ocean carbon uptake evident in airborne observations
Long et al. Science
10.1126/science.abi4355

CO2 capture, sequestration & repurposing science & engineering

Role of Co species on Co/KIT-6 catalyst surface in CO2 hydrogenation
Zhou et al. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology
10.1002/ghg.2137

Decarbonization

Zero air pollution and zero carbon from all energy at low cost and without blackouts in variable weather throughout the U.S. with 100% wind-water-solar and storage
Jacobson et al. Renewable Energy
10.1016/j.renene.2021.11.067

Pricing indirect emissions accelerates low—carbon transition of US light vehicle sector
Wolfram et al. Nature Communications
Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41467-021-27247-y

Geoengineering climate

Climate response to latitudinal and altitudinal distribution of stratospheric sulfate aerosols
Zhao et al. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
10.1029/2021jd035379

Aerosols

(provisional link) Anthropogenic–biogenic interaction amplifies warming from emission reduction over the southeastern US
10.1088/1748-9326/ac3285

A large reduction of direct aerosol cooling over Poland in the last decades
Markowicz et al. International Journal of Climatology
10.1002/joc.7488

Tropospheric warming over the North Indian Ocean caused by the South Asian anthropogenic aerosols: possible implications
Fadnavis et al.
Open Access pdf 10.5194/acp-2021-969

Climate change communications & cognition

Political ideology and climate change-mitigating behaviors: Insights from fixed world beliefs
Chan & Faria Global Environmental Change
10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102440

(provisional link) Learning from the COVID-19 pandemic to combat climate change: comparing drivers of individual action in global crises
10.1007/s13412-021-00727-9

Agronomy, animal husbundry, food production & climate change

Financing climate change mitigation in agriculture: assessment of investment cases
Khatri-Chhetri et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac3605

Influence of water transpired and irrigation on maize yields for future climate scenarios using Regional Model
Donfack et al. Atmospheric Science Letters
Open Access pdf 10.1002/asl.1075

Estimated climate impact of replacing agriculture as the primary food production system
MacDougall et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac3aa5

Impacts of supply-side climate change mitigation practices and trade policy regimes under dietary transition: the case of European agriculture
Clora et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac39bd

(provisional link) Emotional pathways to climate change responses
10.1016/j.cobeha.2021.02.001

Planning maize hybrids adaptation to future climate change by integrating crop modelling with machine learning
Zhang et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac32fd

Separating the impacts of heat stress events from rising mean temperatures on winter wheat yield of China
Liu et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac3870

Enhancing the sustainability of Mediterranean olive groves through adaptation measures to climate change using modelling and response surfaces
Lorite et al. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108742

Hydrology & climate change

Ongoing Drainage Reorganization Driven by Rapid Lake Growths on the Tibetan Plateau
Liu et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl095795

Characterization of interannual and seasonal variability of hydro-climatic trends in the Upper Indus Basin
Liaqat et al. Theoretical and Applied Climatology
10.1007/s00704-021-03850-3

How might climate change affect river flows across West Africa?
Rameshwaran et al. Climatic Change
Open Access pdf 10.1007/s10584-021-03256-0

Super Droughts over East Asia since 1960 under the Impacts of Global Warming and Decadal Variability
Wang et al. International Journal of Climatology
10.1002/joc.7483

Adaptive water management in the face of uncertainty: Integrating machine learning, groundwater modeling and robust decision making
Miro et al. Climate Risk Management
Open Access 10.1016/j.crm.2021.100383

Future Changes in Snowpack, Snowmelt, and Runoff Potential Extremes Over North America
Cho et al. Geophysical Research Letters
10.1029/2021gl094985

Climate change economics

The Effects of Climate Change on Interregional Electricity Market Dynamics on the U.S. West Coast
Hill et al. Earth's Future
Open Access 10.1002/essoar.10506741.1

Climate change mitigation public policy research

Equity implications of net zero visions
Lenzi et al. Climatic Change
10.1007/s10584-021-03270-2

Has the international climate regime promoted climate justice? Evidence from Clean Development Mechanism projects in China
Xu & Zhang Climate Policy
10.1080/14693062.2021.2008294

Small wins enhancing sustainability transformations: Sustainable development policy in Finland
Salo et al. Environmental Science & Policy
Open Access 10.1016/j.envsci.2021.11.024

‘Walking along with development’: Climate resilient pathways for political resource curses
Butler et al. Environmental Science & Policy
Open Access 10.1016/j.envsci.2021.11.020

Limited integration of biodiversity within climate policy: Evidence from the Alliance of Small Island States
Strauß et al. Environmental Science & Policy
10.1016/j.envsci.2021.11.019

Climate and trade policies: from silos to integration
Laurens et al. Climate Policy
10.1080/14693062.2021.2009433

Carbon tax acceptability with information provision and mixed revenue uses
Maestre-Andrés et al. Nature Communications
Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41467-021-27380-8

Climate change adaptation & adaptation public policy research

Theorizing (im)mobility in the face of environmental change
Zickgraf Regional Environmental Change
10.1007/s10113-021-01839-2

Supporting urban adaptation to climate change: What role can resilience measurement tools play?
Mehryar et al. Urban Climate
Open Access 10.1016/j.uclim.2021.101047

Public support for local adaptation policy: The role of social-psychological factors, perceived climatic stimuli, and social structural characteristics
Houser et al. Global Environmental Change
10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102424

Upscaling the resilience assessment through comparative analysis
Rocha et al. Global Environmental Change
Open Access 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102419

Cost–benefit analysis of adaptation to storm surge due to climate change in Osaka Bay, Japan
Ha et al. Climatic Change
10.1007/s10584-021-03282-y

Defining and operationalizing path dependency for the development and monitoring of adaptation pathways
Hanger-Kopp et al. Global Environmental Change
Open Access 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102425

Contextualizing cross-national patterns in household climate change adaptation
Noll et al. Nature Climate Change
10.1038/s41558-021-01222-3

Climate change impacts on human health

Identifying the need for locally-observed wet bulb globe temperature across outdoor athletic venues for current and future climates in a desert environment
Guyer et al. Environmental Research Letters
Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac32fb

Other

Quantifying uncertainty in aggregated climate change risk assessments
Harrington et al. Nature Communications
Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41467-021-27491-2

(provisional link) Persistence and Variability of Earth’s Interhemispheric Albedo Symmetry in 19 Years of CERES EBAF Observations
10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0970.1

Informed opinion, nudges & major initiatives

Introducing the Topical Collection: ‘Climate change communication and the IPCC’
O’Neill & Pidcock Climatic Change
Open Access pdf 10.1007/s10584-021-03253-3

Core Concept: Green ammonia could produce climate-friendly ways to store energy and fertilize farms
Ornes Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Open Access pdf 10.1073/pnas.2119584118

Perspectives on future sea ice and navigability in the Arctic
Chen et al. The Cryosphere
Open Access pdf 10.5194/tc-15-5473-2021

Adaptation is context specific
Shelhamer & Clendaniel Nature Climate Change /i>
Open Access 10.1007/s00221-002-1199-1

 

Articles/Reports from Agencies and Non-Governmental Organizations Addressing Aspects of Climate Changeh3>

Electric Utilities Benchmark Insights Report (pdf), World Benching Alliance, November 2021

"The Electric Utility Benchmark measures and ranks the world’s 50 most influential electric utility generation companies on their low-carbon transition. The Electric Utilities Benchmark 2021 is the first comprehensive assessment of companies in the electric utilities sector using the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) Net Zero Emissions by 2050 Scenario which was released in May 2021. In partnership with CDP and ADEME (the French agency for ecological transition), the benchmark assesses 50 keystone electric utility companies’ targets and performance against their 1.5°C pathways, to see if they are on track to meet the Paris Agreement goal using the ACT (Assessing low-Carbon Transition) Electric Utility methodology." 

U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System and Energy Storage Cost Benchmarks: Q1 2021, (pdf) Ramasamy et al., National Renewable Energy Laboratory

"This report benchmarks installed costs for U.S. solar photovoltaic (PV) systems as of the first quarter of 2021 (Q1 2021). THe authors use a bottom-up method, accounting for all system and project development costs incurred during installation to model the costs for residential, commercial, and utility-scale PV systems, with and without energy storage. They attempt to model typical installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. Costs are represented from the perspective of the developer/installer; thus, all hardware costs represent the price at which components are purchased by the developer/installer and do not account for preexisting supply agreements or other contracts. Importantly, the benchmarks also represent the sales price paid to the installer. Therefore, they include profit in the cost of the hardware; the profit the installer/developer receives is reported as a separate cost category on top of all other costs to approximate the final retail price paid to the installer/developer. Benchmarks also assume a business environment without any impact from the novel coronavirus pandemic. Finally, the benchmarks that are used are national averages calculated using average values across all states."

Photovoltaic (PV) Module Technologies: 2020 Benchmark Costs and Technology Evolution Framework Results (pdf), Smith et al., National Renewable Energy Laboratory

"In 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Solar Energy Technologies Office set a goal to reduce the unsubsidized levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) to 3 cents/kWh by 2030. Utility PV systems were benchmarked to have an LCOE of approximately 5 cents/kWh in 2020 (Feldman, Ramasamy et al. 2021). To achieve the 2030 SunShot goal, the lifetime economics of PV systems must be improved across multiple dimensions. One key aspect is module minimum sustainable price (MSP), which are benchmarked in this report using bottom-up manufacturing cost analysis, applying a gross margin of 15% to approximate the minimum rate of return necessary to sustain a business over the long term.

Governors' Climate Resilience U.S. Climate Alliance Playbook 2021 (pdf), U.S. Climate Alliance

"The 2021 Governors’ Climate Resilience Playbook outlines 12 foundational steps to set and achieve an effective state-level climate resilience agenda. This Playbook updates the 2018 U.S. Climate Alliance (USCA) New Governors’ Climate Resilience Playbook based on U.S. Climate Alliance member feedback and seeks to account for changing climate and political developments and conditions and capture some of the momentum around climate resilience action over the past few years. While the 2018 Playbook outlined what states should do to further the climate resilience agenda across states, the 2021 Playbook is focused on how to make it reality.

World Inequality Report 2022 (pdf), Chancel et al., World Inequality Lab

"This report presents the most up-to-date synthesis of international research efforts to track global inequalities. The data and analysis presented here are based on the work of more than 100 researchers over four years, located on all continents, contributing to the World Inequality Database (WID.world), maintained by the World Inequality Lab. This vast network collaborates with statistical institutions, tax authorities, universities and international organizations, to harmonize, analyze and disseminate comparable international inequality data.

Addressing large inequalities in carbon emissions is essential for tackling climate change. Global income and wealth inequalities are tightly connected to ecological inequalities and to inequalities in contributions to climate change. On average, humans emit 6.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2) per capita, per year. Our novel data set on carbon emissions inequalities reveals important inequalities in CO2 emissions at the world level: the top 10% of emitters are responsible for close to 50% of all emissions, while the bottom 50% produce 12% of the total."

A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration (pdf), Doney et al., National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

"The report builds on previous work from the National Academies to assess what is currently known about the benefits, risks, and potential for responsible scale-up of six specific ocean-based CDR strategies as identified by the sponsor, ClimateWorks Foundation. It describes the research needed to advance understanding of those approaches and address knowledge gaps. The resulting research agenda is meant to provide an improved and unbiased knowledge base for the public, stakeholders, and policymakers to make informed decisions on the next steps for ocean CDR, as part of a larger climate mitigation strategy; it is not meant to lock in or advocate for any particular approach."


 

Obtaining articles wihout journal subscriptions

We know it's frustrating that many articles we cite here are not free to read. One-off paid access fees are generally astronomically priced, suitable for such as "On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light but not as a gamble on unknowns. With a median world income of US$ 9,373, for most of us US$ 42 is significant money to wager on an article's relevance and importance. 

  • Unpaywall offers a browser extension for Chrome and Firefox that automatically indicates when an article is freely accessible and provides immediate access without further trouble. Unpaywall is also unscammy, works well, is itself offered free to use. The organizers (a legitimate nonprofit) report about a 50% success rate
  • The weekly New Research catch is checked against the Unpaywall database with accessible items being flagged. Especially for just-published articles this mechansim may fail. If you're interested in an article title and it is not listed here as "open access," be sure to check the link anyway. 

How is New Research assembled?

Most articles appearing here are found via  RSS feeds from journal publishers, filtered by search terms to produce raw output for assessment of relevance. 

Relevant articles are then queried against the Unpaywall database, to identify open access articles and expose useful metadata for articles appearing in the database. 

The objective of New Research isn't to cast a tinge on scientific results, to color readers' impressions. Hence candidate articles are assessed via two metrics only:

  • Was an article deemed of sufficient merit by a team of journal editors and peer reviewers? The fact of journal RSS output assigns a "yes" to this automatically. 
  • Is an article relevant to the topic of anthropogenic climate change? Due to filter overlap with other publication topics of inquiry, of a typical week's 550 or so input articles about 1/4 of RSS output makes the cut.

A few journals offer public access to "preprint" versions of articles for which the review process is not yet complete. As it is the journal's decision to do so, we respect that and include such items in New Research. These are flagged as "preprint."

The section "Informed opinion, nudges & major initiatives" includes some items that are not scientific research per se but fall instead into the category of "perspectives," observations of implications of research findings, areas needing attention, etc.

What does "(provisional link)" mean?

When the input list for New Research is processed, some articles do not produce a result from the journal databases we employ. Usually this is because the publisher has not yet supplied information to doi.org for the given article. In these cases and in order to still include timely listing of articles, we employ an alternate search tactic. While this method is usually correct, sometimes the link shown will lead to an incorrect destination (available time does not always permit manual checking of these). We invite readers to submit corrections in comments below.

Each edition of New Research is reprocessed some two weeks after intitial publication to catch stragglers into the DOI ecosystem. Many "provisional links" will end up being corrected as part of this process. 

Suggestions

Please let us know if you're aware of an article you think may be of interest for Skeptical Science research news, or if we've missed something that may be important. Send your input to Skeptical Science via our contact form.

Journals covered

A list of journals we cover may be found here. We welcome pointers to omissions, new journals etc.

Previous edition

The previous edition of Skeptical Science New Research may be found here.

0 0

Printable Version  |  Link to this page

Comments

There have been no comments posted yet.

You need to be logged in to post a comment. Login via the left margin or if you're new, register here.



The Consensus Project Website

THE ESCALATOR

(free to republish)


© Copyright 2022 John Cook
Home | Links | Translations | About Us | Privacy | Contact Us