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Climate Hustle

References for the Denial101x MOOC

Posted on 29 August 2015 by LarryM, BaerbelW , MichaelK

The EdX MOOC "Denial101x - Making Sense of Climate Science Denial" is fully supported by peer-reviewed research.  This page presents the comprehensive list of references with links to the corresponding papers.  The index below is organized by week and by lecture topic, and there is a corresponding list of MOOC lecture videos and expert interviews.


Week 1  –  Overview of the climate controversy

1.  Consensus of evidence 6.  Dragons of inaction
2.  Consensus of scientists 7.  Ideological bias
3.  Consensus of papers 8.  Manufacturing doubt
4.  Knowledge based consensus 9.  Media balance-as-bias
5.  Vested interests 10. Five characteristics of science denial

Week 2  –  Global warming is happening

1.  Heat build-up 6.  Antarctic land ice vs sea ice
2.  Hot records 7.  Building a robust temperature record
3.  Sea level rise 8.  Heat in the city
4.  Shrinking glaciers 9.  Wavy jet stream
5.  Greenland ice loss 10. Climate change vs global warming

Week 3  –  We are causing global warming

1.  Upsetting the natural balance 6.  Reinforcing feedback
2.  The CO2 rise is man-made 7.  Structure of our atmosphere
3.  Taking up residence 8.  Measuring from space
4.  The greenhouse effect 9.  Daily and yearly cycle
5.  Increasing the greenhouse effect  

Week 4  –  The past tells us about the future

1.  Message from the past 7.  Success stories
2.  The little ice age 8.  Not so successful stories put into context
3.  Ancient CO2 levels 9.  Weather vs climate
4.  Medieval warm period 10. Climate science in the 1970s
5.  Confused decline 11. Future ice age
6.  Principles that models are built on 12. Tendency to underestimate climate impacts

Week 5  –  Impacts of climate change

1.  Climate is sensitive 8.  Overall impacts
2.  Water vapor amplifies warming 9.  Carbon dioxide is a pollutant
3.  The role of clouds in climate change 10. Agricultural impacts
4.  Methane clathrate feedback 11. Extreme weather
5.  Adaptation takes time 12. Heat waves
6.  Polar bears 13. Hurricanes
7.  Ocean acidification  

Week 6  –  Responding to denial

1.  Vocal minority 4.  Sticky science
2.  Worldview backfire effect 5.  Flu shots
3.  Inoculation theory  

 



CONSENSUS OF EVIDENCE   [top]

Science is not a democracy quote

Reisman, J. P. (2011). Exposing the climate hoax: It's ALL about the economy. New Jersey: Lyra Books.

Burning fossil fuels produces CO2

Revelle, R. & Suess, H. E. (1957). Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during the past decades. Tellus, 9(1), 18-27. Link to PDF

Post, W. M., Peng, T. H., Emanuel, W. R., King, A. W., Dale, V. H., & DeAngelis, D. L. (1990). The global carbon cycle. American Scientist, 78(4), 310-326. Link to PDF

Less heat escaping to space

Loeb, N. G., Wielicki, B. A., Doelling, D. R., Smith, G. L., Keyes, D. F., Kato, S., ... & Wong, T. (2009). Toward optimal closure of the Earth's top-of-atmosphere radiation budget. Journal of Climate, 22(3), 748-766. Link to PDF

More IR at the surface

Feldman, D. R., Collins, W. D., Gero, P. J., Torn, M. S., Mlawer, E. J., & Shippert, T. R. (2015). Observational determination of surface radiative forcing by CO2 from 2000 to 2010. Nature, 519(7543), 339-343. Link to abstract

Cooling in the upper atmosphere

Santer, B. D., Painter, J. F., Bonfils, C., Mears, C. A., Solomon, S., Wigley, T. M., ... & Wentz, F. J. (2013). Human and natural influences on the changing thermal structure of the atmosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(43), 17235-17240. Link to paper

Changing structure of the atmosphere

Laštovička, J., Akmaev, R. A., Beig, G., Bremer, J., & Emmert, J. T. (2006). Global change in the upper atmosphere. Science, 314(5803), 1253-1254. Link to Word-doc

The sky is falling - Gavin Schmidt "quip"

Schmidt, G. (2006), The sky IS falling. 26 November 2006 RealClimate.org http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2006/11/the-sky-is-falling/.

CONSENSUS OF SCIENTISTS   [top]

Doran, P. T., & Zimmerman, M. K. (2009). Examining the scientific consensus on climate change. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 90(3), 22-23. Link to PDF

Anderegg, W. R., Prall, J. W., Harold, J., & Schneider, S. H. (2010). Expert credibility in climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(27), 12107-12109. Link to paper

Diethelm, P., & McKee, M. (2009). Denialism: what is it and how should scientists respond?. The European Journal of Public Health, 19(1), 2-4. Link to PDF

Kahan, D. M., Jenkins‐Smith, H., & Braman, D. (2011). Cultural cognition of scientific consensus. Journal of Risk Research, 14(2), 147-174. Link to PDF

Plous, S. (1991). Biases in the assimilation of technological breakdowns - do accidents make us safer. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21(13), 1058-1082. Link to abstract

Talisse, R., & Aikin, S. F. (2006). Two forms of the straw man. Argumentation, 20(3), 345-352. Link to PDF

Smith, N., & Leiserowitz, A. (2012). The rise of global warming skepticism: Exploring affective image associations in the United States over time. Risk Analysis, 32(6), 1021-1032. Link to PDF

CONSENSUS OF PAPERS   [top]

Oreskes, N. (2004). The scientific consensus on climate change. Science, 306(5702), 1686-1686. Link to paper

Cook, J., Nuccitelli, D., Green, S. A., Richardson, M., Winkler, B., Painting, R., ... & Skuce, A. (2013). Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature. Environmental Research Letters, 8(2), 024024. Link to paper

Shwed, U., & Bearman, P. S. (2010). The temporal structure of scientific consensus formation. American Sociological Review, 75(6), 817-840. Link to paper

KNOWLEDGE BASED CONSENSUS   [top]

Miller, B. (2013) When is Consensus Knowledge Based? Distinguishing Shared Knowledge from Mere Agreement. Synthese, 190(7): 1293-1316. Link to paper

Oreskes, N. (1988). The rejection of continental drift. Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, 311-348. Link to paper

Oreskes, N., & Wegener, A. (1999). The rejection of continental drift: Theory and method in American earth science. New York: Oxford University Press. http://media.hhmi.org/hl/12Lect2.html

Oreskes, N. (2012, November). Building scientific knowledge: The story of plate tectonics. Howard Hughes Medical Institute Holiday Lectures on Science – Changing Planet: Past, Present, Future. Lecture conducted from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD.

VESTED INTERESTS   [top]

Cook, J., Nuccitelli, D., Green, S. A., Richardson, M., Winkler, B., Painting, R., ... & Skuce, A. (2013). Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature. Environmental Research Letters, 8(2), 024024. Link to paper

Oreskes, N., & Conway, E. M. (2010). Merchants of doubt: How a handful of scientists obscured the truth on issues from tobacco smoke to global warming. Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

DRAGONS OF INACTION   [top]

Gifford, R. (2011). The dragons of inaction: Psychological barriers that limit climate change mitigation and adaptation. American Psychologist, 66(4), 290. Link to abstract

Gifford, R., Scannell, L., Kormos, C., Smolova, L., Biel, A., Boncu, S., ... & Uzzell, D. (2009). Temporal pessimism and spatial optimism in environmental assessments: An 18-nation study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(1), 1-12. Link to PDF

Pahl, S., Harris, P. R., Todd, H. A., & Rutter, D. R. (2005). Comparative optimism for environmental risks. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25(1), 1-11. Link to abstract

Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 32(4): 665-683.

Lorenzoni, I., Nicholson-Cole, S., & Whitmarsh, L. (2007). Barriers perceived to engaging with climate change among the UK public and their policy implications. Global Environmental Change, 17(3), 445-459. Link to abstract

Heath, Y., & Gifford, R. (2002). Extending the theory of planned behavior: Predicting the use of public transportation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(10), 2154-2189. Link to PDF

Ding, D., Maibach, E. W., Zhao, X., Roser-Renouf, C., & Leiserowitz, A. (2011). Support for climate policy and societal action are linked to perceptions about scientific agreement. Nature Climate Change, 1(9), 462-466. Link to PDF

McCright, A. M., Dunlap, R. E., & Xiao, C. (2013). Perceived scientific agreement and support for government action on climate change in the USA. Climatic Change, 119(2), 511-518. Link to abstract

Lewandowsky, S., Gignac, G. E., & Vaughan, S. (2013). The pivotal role of perceived scientific consensus in acceptance of science. Nature Climate Change, 3(4), 399-404. Link to abstract (Link to PDF)

van der Linden, S. L., Leiserowitz, A. A., Feinberg, G. D., & Maibach, E. W. (2014). How to communicate the scientific consensus on climate change: Plain facts, pie charts or metaphors?. Climatic Change, 126(1-2), 255-262. Link to PDF

Heath, Y., & Gifford, R. (2006). Free-market ideology and environmental degradation the case of belief in global climate change. Environment and Behavior, 38(1), 48-71. Link to abstract

IDEOLOGICAL BIAS   [top]

Kahan, D. M., Braman, D., Slovic, P., Gastil, J., & Cohen, G. L. (2007). The second national risk and culture study: Making sense of-and making progress in-the American culture war of fact. GWU Legal Studies Research Paper, (370), 08-26. Link to PDF

Campbell, T. H., & Kay, A. C. (2014). Solution aversion: On the relation between ideology and motivated disbelief. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(5), 809. Link to PDF

Leiserowitz et al. (2013). Climate change in the American mind: Americans’ global warming beliefs. Yale Project on Climate Change Communication and the George Mason University Center for Climate Change Communication. http://environment.yale.edu/climate-communication/files/Climate-Beliefs-April-2013.pdf . Accessed online 05 April 2015

What we know: The reality, risks, and response to climate change. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). http://whatweknow.aaas.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/whatweknow_website.pdf . Accessed online 05 April 2015

MANUFACTURING DOUBT   [top]

Brysse, K., Oreskes, N., O’Reilly, J., & Oppenheimer, M. (2013). Climate change prediction: Erring on the side of least drama?. Global Environmental Change, 23(1), 327-337. Link to PDF

Luntz F (2002) The environment: A cleaner, safer, healthier America. Luntz Research, Alexandria. https://www2.bc.edu/~plater/Newpublicsite06/suppmats/02.6.pdf. Accessed online 05 April 2015

Elsasser, S. W., & Dunlap, R. E. (2012). Leading voices in the denier choir: Conservative columnists’ dismissal of global warming and denigration of climate science. American Behavioral Scientist, 0002764212469800. Link to abstract

Freudenburg, W. R., & Muselli, V. (2010). Global warming estimates, media expectations, and the asymmetry of scientific challenge. Global Environmental Change, 20(3), 483-491. Link to PDF

Lester, G., Wilson, B., Griffin, L., & Mullen, P. E. (2004). Unusually persistent complainants. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 184(4), 352-356. Link to paper

Lewandowsky, S., Mann, M. E., Bauld, L., Hastings, G., & Loftus, E. F. The Subterranean War on Science. aps Observer available online at https://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/publications/observer/2013/november-13/the-subterranean-war-on-science.html accessed online 05 April 2015

Lewandowsky, S., Oreskes, N., Risbey, J. S., Newell, B. R., & Smithson, M. (2013). Toxic seepage: Climate denial and its corrosive effect on the scientific community. (Unpublished manuscript.)

Mullen, P. E., & Lester, G. (2006). Vexatious litigants and unusually persistent complainants and petitioners: From querulous paranoia to querulous behaviour. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 24(3), 333-349. Link to abstract

Oreskes, N., & Conway, E. M. (2010). Merchants of doubt: how a handful of scientists obscured the truth on issues from tobacco smoke to global warming. Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

MEDIA BALANCE-AS-BIAS   [top]

Malka, A., Krosnick, J. A., Debell, M., Pasek, J., & Schneider, D. (2009). Featuring skeptics in news media stories about global warming reduces public beliefs in the seriousness of global warming. Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, Technical Paper), Available at http://woods. stanford. edu/research/global-warming-skeptics.html. Link to PDF

Boykoff, M. T., & Boykoff, J. M. (2004). Balance as bias: Global warming and the US prestige press. Global Environmental Change, 14(2), 125-136. Link to PDF

Boykoff, M. T. (2007). Flogging a dead norm? Newspaper coverage of anthropogenic climate change in the United States and United Kingdom from 2003 to 2006. Area, 39(4), 470-481.  Link to PDF

Boykoff, M. T., & Mansfield, M. (2008). 'Ye Olde Hot Aire': Reporting on human contributions to climate change in the UK tabloid press. Environmental Research Letters, 3(2), 024002. Link to paper

Boykoff, M. T. (2008). Lost in translation? United States television news coverage of anthropogenic climate change, 1995–2004. Climatic Change, 86(1-2), 1-11. Link to PDF

FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCE DENIAL   [top]

Diethelm, P., & McKee, M. (2009). Denialism: What is it and how should scientists respond?. The European Journal of Public Health, 19(1), 2-4. Link to PDF

Kahan, D. M., Jenkins‐Smith, H., & Braman, D. (2011). Cultural cognition of scientific consensus. Journal of Risk Research, 14(2), 147-174. Link to PDF

Plous, S. (1991). Biases in the assimilation of technological breakdowns - do accidents make us safer. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21(13), 1058-1082. Link to abstract

Talisse, R., & Aikin, S. F. (2006). Two forms of the straw man. Argumentation, 20(3), 345-352. Link to PDF

Smith, N., & Leiserowitz, A. (2012). The rise of global warming skepticism: Exploring affective image associations in the United States over time. Risk Analysis, 32(6), 1021-1032. Link to PDF

HEAT BUILD-UP   [top]

Lawrimore, J. H., Menne, M. J., Gleason, B. E., Williams, C. N., Wuertz, D. B., Vose, R. S., & Rennie, J. (2011). An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network monthly mean temperature data set, version 3. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), 116(D19). Link to paper

Hansen, J., Ruedy, R., Sato, M., & Lo, K. (2010). Global surface temperature change. Reviews of Geophysics, 48(4). Link to paper

Rhein, M., Rintoul, S. R., & others (2013). Chapter 3: Observations: Ocean In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Link to PDF (p264)

Church, J. A., White, N. J., Konikow, L. F., Domingues, C. M., Cogley, J. G., Rignot, E., ... & Velicogna, I. (2011). Revisiting the Earth's sea‐level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008. Geophysical Research Letters, 38(18). Link to paper

HOT RECORDS   [top]

Meehl, G. A., Tebaldi, C., Walton, G., Easterling, D., & McDaniel, L. (2009). Relative increase of record high maximum temperatures compared to record low minimum temperatures in the US. Geophysical Research Letters, 36(23). Link to paper

Trewin, B., & Vermont, H. (2010). Changes in the frequency of record temperatures in Australia, 1957–2009. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal, 60(2), 113-120. Link to PDF

Coumou, D., Robinson, A., & Rahmstorf, S. (2013). Global increase in record-breaking monthly-mean temperatures. Climatic Change, 118(3-4), 771-782. Link to PDF

Rohde, R., Muller, R. A., Jacobsen, R., Muller, E., Perlmutter, S., Rosenfeld, A., ... & Wickham, C. (2013). A new estimate of the average Earth surface land temperature spanning 1753 to 2011. Geoinfor Geostat Overview 1: 1. of, 7, 2. Link to PDF

SEA LEVEL RISE   [top]

Church, J. A., White, N. J., Aarup, T., Wilson, W. S., Woodworth, P. L., Domingues, C. M., ... & Lambeck, K. (2008). Understanding global sea levels: past, present and future. Sustainability Science, 3(1), 9-22. Link to PDF

Rahmstorf, S. (2010). A new view on sea level rise. Nature Reports Climate Change, 44-45. Link to paper

CSIRO: Historical Sea Level Changes http://www.cmar.csiro.au/sealevel/sl_hist_last_decades.html. Accessed online 05 April 2015

Allison, Ian, et al. The Copenhagen diagnosis, 2009: Updating the world on the latest climate science. The University of New South Wales Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney, Australia, 60pp. Link to PDF

Jevrejeva, S., Moore, J. C., & Grinsted, A. (2012). Sea level projections to AD2500 with a new generation of climate change scenarios. Global and Planetary Change, 80, 14-20. Link to abstract

Rahmstorf, S., Perrette, M., & Vermeer, M. (2012). Testing the robustness of semi-empirical sea level projections. Climate Dynamics, 39(3-4), 861-875. Link to PDF

Levermann, A., Clark, P. U., Marzeion, B., Milne, G. A., Pollard, D., Radic, V., & Robinson, A. (2013). The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(34), 13745-13750. Link to paper

Vermeer, M., & Rahmstorf, S. (2009). Global sea level linked to global temperature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(51), 21527-21532. Link to paper

Pfeffer, W. T., Harper, J. T., & O'Neel, S. (2008). Kinematic constraints on glacier contributions to 21st-century sea-level rise. Science, 321(5894), 1340-1343. Link to PDF

University of Colorado, Sea Level Research Group, http://sealevel.colorado.edu/. Accessed online 05 April 2015

Milly, P. C. D., Cazenave, A., & Gennero, C. (2003). Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(23), 13158-13161. Link to paper

Chen, J. L., Wilson, C. R., Chambers, D. P., Nerem, R. S., & Tapley, B. D. (1998). Seasonal global water mass budget and mean sea level variations. Geophysical Research Letters, 25(19), 3555-3558. Link to PDF

Leuliette, E. W., & Willis, J. K. (2011). Balancing the sea level budget. Oceanography-Oceanography Society, 24(2), 122. Link to PDF

Dai, A., & Wigley, T. M. L. (2000). Global patterns of ENSO‐induced precipitation. Geophysical Research Letters, 27(9), 1283-1286. Link to PDF

Llovel, W., Becker, M., Cazenave, A., Jevrejeva, S., Alkama, R., Decharme, B., ... & Beckley, B. (2011). Terrestrial waters and sea level variations on interannual time scale. Global and Planetary Change, 75(1), 76-82. Link to PDF

Rahmstorf, S. (2012). Modeling sea level rise. Nature Education Knowledge, 3(3), 4. Link to paper

Church, J.A., P.U. Clark, A. Cazenave, J.M. Gregory, S. Jevrejeva, A. Levermann, M.A. Merrifield, G.A. Milne, R.S. Nerem, P.D. Nunn, A.J. Payne, W.T. Pfeffer,D. Stammer and A.S. Unnikrishnan, 2013: Sea Level Change. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Link to PDF

SHRINKING GLACIERS   [top]

Paul, F., Kääb, A., Maisch, M., Kellenberger, T., & Haeberli, W. (2004). Rapid disintegration of Alpine glaciers observed with satellite data. Geophysical Research Letters, 31(21). Link to paper

World Glacier Monitoring Service "Fluctuations of Glaciers" series. http://www.wgms.ch/pub_wgms.html. Accessed online 05 April 2015 [Note: each of the entries comes with a link embedded where it says PDF]

Jacob, T., Wahr, J., Pfeffer, W.T., & Swenson, S. (2012). Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise. Nature 482, 514-518. Link to abstract.

Fisher, D., Zheng, J., Burgess, D., Zdanowicz, C., Kinnard, C., Sharp, M., & Bourgeois, J. (2011). Recent melt rates of Canadian Arctic ice caps are the highest in four millennia. Global and Planetary Change. Link to manuscript.

Miller, G.H., Lehman, S.J., Refsnider, K.A., Southon, J.R. & Zhong, Y. (2013). Unprecedented recent summer warmth in Arctic Canada. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(21). 5745-5751. Link to abstract.

GREENLAND ICE LOSS   [top]

Helm, V., Humbert, A., & Miller, H. (2014). Elevation and elevation change of Greenland and Antarctica derived from CryoSat-2. The Cryosphere, 8(4), 1539-1559. Link to PDF

Reyes, A. V., Carlson, A. E., Beard, B. L., Hatfield, R. G., Stoner, J. S., Winsor, K., ... & Ullman, D. J. (2014). South Greenland ice-sheet collapse during Marine Isotope Stage [thinsp] 11. Nature, 510(7506), 525-528. Link to abstract

Box, J. E., Yang, L., Bromwich, D. H., & Bai, L. S. (2009). Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Air Temperature Variability: 1840-2007*. Journal of Climate, 22(14), 4029-4049. Link to PDF

Greenland Ice Sheet Today. http://nsidc.org/greenland-today/. Accessed online 20 April 2015.

Rignot, E., & Kanagaratnam, P. (2006). Changes in the velocity structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science, 311(5763), 986-990. Link to abstract

ANTARCTIC LAND ICE VS SEA ICE   [top]

Helm, V., Humbert, A., & Miller, H. (2014). Elevation and elevation change of Greenland and Antarctica derived from CryoSat-2. The Cryosphere, 8(4), 1539-1559. Link to PDF

Mouginot, J., Rignot, E., & Scheuchl, B. (2014). Sustained increase in ice discharge from the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica, from 1973 to 2013. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(5), 1576-1584. Link to PDF (starting on page 2)

Rignot, E., Velicogna, I., Van den Broeke, M. R., Monaghan, A., & Lenaerts, J. T. M. (2011). Acceleration of the contribution of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to sea level rise. Geophysical Research Letters, 38(5). Link to paper

Simmonds, I. (2015). Comparing and contrasting the behaviour of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice over the 35 year period 1979–2013. Ann. Glaciol, 56, 18-28. Link to PDF

Bintanja, R., Van Oldenborgh, G. J., Drijfhout, S. S., Wouters, B., & Katsman, C. A. (2013). Important role for ocean warming and increased ice-shelf melt in Antarctic sea-ice expansion. Nature Geoscience, 6(5), 376-379. Link to PDF

BUILDING A ROBUST TEMPERATURE RECORD   [top]

Morice, C. P., Kennedy, J. J., Rayner, N. A., & Jones, P. D. (2012). Quantifying uncertainties in global and regional temperature change using an ensemble of observational estimates: The HadCRUT4 data set. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), 117(D8). Link to paper

Rohde, R., Muller, R., Jacobsen, R., Perlmutter, S., Rosenfeld, A., Wurtele, J., ... & Mosher, S. (2013). Berkeley earth temperature averaging process. Geoinfor. Geostat.: An Overview, 1(2), 1-13. Link to PDF

Cowtan, K., & Way, R. G. (2014). Coverage bias in the HadCRUT4 temperature series and its impact on recent temperature trends. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 140(683), 1935-1944. Link to paper

Smith, T. M., Reynolds, R. W., Peterson, T. C., & Lawrimore, J. (2008). Improvements to NOAA's historical merged land-ocean surface temperature analysis (1880-2006). Journal of Climate, 21(10), 2283-2296. Link to PDF

Hansen, J., Ruedy, R., Sato, M., & Lo, K. (2010). Global surface temperature change. Reviews of Geophysics, 48(4). Link to paper

Compo, G. P., Whitaker, J. S., Sardeshmukh, P. D., Matsui, N., Allan, R. J., Yin, X., ... & Worley, S. J. (2011). The twentieth century reanalysis project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137(654), 1-28. Link to paper

Mears, C. A., & Wentz, F. J. (2009). Construction of the Remote Sensing Systems V3. 2 atmospheric temperature records from the MSU and AMSU microwave sounders. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 26(6), 1040-1056. Link to PDF

Spencer, R. W., Christy, J. R., Braswell, W. D., & Norris, W. B. (2006). Estimation of tropospheric temperature trends from MSU channels 2 and 4. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 23(3), 417-423. Link to paper

Anderson, D. M., Mauk, E. M., Wahl, E. R., Morrill, C., Wagner, A. J., Easterling, D., & Rutishauser, T. (2013). Global warming in an independent record of the past 130 years. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(1), 189-193. Link to paper

Ahmed, M., Anchukaitis, K., Buckley, B. M., Braida, M., Borgaonkar, H. P., Asrat, A., ... & Phipps, S. J. (2013). Continental-Scale Temperature Variability during the Past Two Millennia: Supplementary Information. Nature Geoscience, 6(5). Link to PDF

HEAT IN THE CITY   [top]

Menne, M. J., Williams Jr, C. N., & Vose, R. S. (2009). The US Historical Climatology Network monthly temperature data, version 2. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90(7), 993-1007. Link to PDF

Jones, P. D., & Wigley, T. M. L. (2010). Estimation of global temperature trends: What’s important and what isn’t. Climatic Change, 100(1), 59-69. Link to PDF

Böhm, R., Jones, P. D., Hiebl, J., Frank, D., Brunetti, M., & Maugeri, M. (2010). The early instrumental warm-bias: a solution for long central European temperature series 1760–2007. Climatic Change, 101(1-2), 41-67. Link to PDF

Brunet, M., Asin, J., Sigró, J., Bañón, M., García, F., Aguilar, E., ... & Jones, P. (2011). The minimization of the screen bias from ancient Western Mediterranean air temperature records: an exploratory statistical analysis. International Journal of Climatology, 31(12), 1879-1895. Link to paper

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