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Climate Hustle

References for the Denial101x MOOC

Posted on 29 August 2015 by LarryM, BaerbelW , MichaelK

The EdX MOOC "Denial101x - Making Sense of Climate Science Denial" is fully supported by peer-reviewed research.  This page presents the comprehensive list of references with links to the corresponding papers.  The index below is organized by week and by lecture topic, and there is a corresponding list of MOOC lecture videos and expert interviews.


Week 1  –  Overview of the climate controversy

1.  Consensus of evidence 6.  Dragons of inaction
2.  Consensus of scientists 7.  Ideological bias
3.  Consensus of papers 8.  Manufacturing doubt
4.  Knowledge based consensus 9.  Media balance-as-bias
5.  Vested interests 10. Five characteristics of science denial

Week 2  –  Global warming is happening

1.  Heat build-up 6.  Antarctic land ice vs sea ice
2.  Hot records 7.  Building a robust temperature record
3.  Sea level rise 8.  Heat in the city
4.  Shrinking glaciers 9.  Wavy jet stream
5.  Greenland ice loss 10. Climate change vs global warming

Week 3  –  We are causing global warming

1.  Upsetting the natural balance 6.  Reinforcing feedback
2.  The CO2 rise is man-made 7.  Structure of our atmosphere
3.  Taking up residence 8.  Measuring from space
4.  The greenhouse effect 9.  Daily and yearly cycle
5.  Increasing the greenhouse effect  

Week 4  –  The past tells us about the future

1.  Message from the past 7.  Success stories
2.  The little ice age 8.  Not so successful stories put into context
3.  Ancient CO2 levels 9.  Weather vs climate
4.  Medieval warm period 10. Climate science in the 1970s
5.  Confused decline 11. Future ice age
6.  Principles that models are built on 12. Tendency to underestimate climate impacts

Week 5  –  Impacts of climate change

1.  Climate is sensitive 8.  Overall impacts
2.  Water vapor amplifies warming 9.  Carbon dioxide is a pollutant
3.  The role of clouds in climate change 10. Agricultural impacts
4.  Methane clathrate feedback 11. Extreme weather
5.  Adaptation takes time 12. Heat waves
6.  Polar bears 13. Hurricanes
7.  Ocean acidification  

Week 6  –  Responding to denial

1.  Vocal minority 4.  Sticky science
2.  Worldview backfire effect 5.  Flu shots
3.  Inoculation theory  

 



CLIMATE IS SENSITIVE   [top]

PALAEOSENS Project Members. (2012). Making sense of palaeoclimate sensitivity. Nature, 491(7426), 683-691. Link to PDF

Masson-Delmotte, V., M. Schulz, A. Abe-Ouchi, J. Beer, A. Ganopolski, J.F. González Rouco, E. Jansen, K. Lambeck, J. Luterbacher, T. Naish, T. Osborn, B. Otto-Bliesner, T. Quinn, R. Ramesh, M. Rojas, X. Shao and A. Timmermann, 2013: Information from Paleoclimate Archives. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Link to PDF

Flato, G., J. Marotzke, B. Abiodun, P. Braconnot, S.C. Chou, W. Collins, P. Cox, F. Driouech, S. Emori, V. Eyring, C. Forest, P. Gleckler, E. Guilyardi, C. Jakob, V. Kattsov, C. Reason and M. Rummukainen, 2013: Evaluation of Climate Models. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA Link to PDF

WATER VAPOUR AMPLIFIES WARMING   [top]

Dai, A. (2006). Recent climatology, variability, and trends in global surface humidity. Journal of Climate, 19(15), 3589-3606. Link to PDF

Dessler, A. E., & Davis, S. M. (2010). Trends in tropospheric humidity from reanalysis systems. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), 115(D19). Link to PDF

Hartmann, D.L., A.M.G. Klein Tank, M. Rusticucci, L.V. Alexander, S. Brönnimann, Y. Charabi, F.J. Dentener, E.J. Dlugokencky, D.R. Easterling, A. Kaplan, B.J. Soden, P.W. Thorne, M. Wild and P.M. Zhai, 2013: Observations: Atmosphere and Surface. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.  Link to PDF, pages 205-206, 198-199.

Willett, K. M., Jones, P. D., Gillett, N. P., & Thorne, P. W. (2008). Recent changes in surface humidity: Development of the HadCRUH dataset. Journal of Climate, 21(20), 5364-5383. Link to PDF

Willett, K. M., Jones, P. D., Thorne, P. W., & Gillett, N. P. (2010). A comparison of large scale changes in surface humidity over land in observations and CMIP3 general circulation models. Environmental Research Letters, 5(2), 025210. Link to PDF

THE ROLE OF CLOUDS IN CLIMATE CHANGE   [top]

Boucher, O., D. Randall, P. Artaxo, C. Bretherton, G. Feingold, P. Forster, V.-M. Kerminen, Y. Kondo, H. Liao, U. Lohmann, P. Rasch, S.K. Satheesh, S. Sherwood, B. Stevens and X.Y. Zhang, 2013: Clouds and Aerosols. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Link to PDF

METHANE CLATHRATE FEEDBACK   [top]

Ruppel, C. D. (2011). Methane hydrates and contemporary climate change. Nature Education Knowledge, 3(10), 29. Link to paper

Whiteman, G., Hope, C., & Wadhams, P. (2013). Climate science: Vast costs of Arctic change. Nature, 499(7459), 401-403. Link to abstract

Shakhova, N., Semiletov, I., Leifer, I., Sergienko, V., Salyuk, A., Kosmach, D., ... & Gustafsson, Ö. (2014). Ebullition and storm-induced methane release from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Nature Geoscience, 7(1), 64-70. Link to paper

MacDougall, A. H., Avis, C. A., & Weaver, A. J. (2012). Significant contribution to climate warming from the permafrost carbon feedback. Nature Geoscience, 5(10), 719-721. Link to abstract

Dmitrenko, I. A., Kirillov, S. A., Tremblay, L. B., Kassens, H., Anisimov, O. A., Lavrov, S. A., ... & Grigoriev, M. N. (2011). Recent changes in shelf hydrography in the Siberian Arctic: Potential for subsea permafrost instability. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012), 116(C10). Link to paper

Ciais, P., C. Sabine, G. Bala, L. Bopp, V. Brovkin, J. Canadell, A. Chhabra, R. DeFries, J. Galloway, M. Heimann, C. Jones, C. Le Quéré, R.B. Myneni, S. Piao and P. Thornton, 2013: Carbon and Other Biogeochemical Cycles. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.  Link to PDF, pages 530-531.

ADAPTATION TAKES TIME   [top]

Barnosky, A. D., Matzke, N., Tomiya, S., Wogan, G. O., Swartz, B., Quental, T. B., ... & Ferrer, E. A. (2011). Has the Earth/'s sixth mass extinction already arrived?. Nature, 471(7336), 51-57. Link to paper

Courtillot, V., Kravchinsky, V.A., Quidelleur, X., Renne, P.R., & Gladkochub, D. (2010). Preliminary dating of the Viluy traps (Eastern Siberia): Eruption at the time of Late Devonian extinction events? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 300(3-4), 239-245. Link to abstract

Breecker, D.O., Sharp, Z.D., & McFadden, L.D. (2009). Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar to those predicted for AD2100. PNAS, 107(2), 576-580. Link to article.

Xu, B., Z. Gu, C. Wang, Q. Hao, J. Han, Q. Liu, L. Wang, and Y. Lu (2012), Carbon isotopic evidence for the associations of decreasing atmospheric CO2level with the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, J. Geophys. Res., 117, G01032,  Link to PDF.

Myrow, P.M., Ramezani, J., Hanson, A.E., Bowring, S.A. Racki, G., & Rakocincki, M. (2014, June). High-prevision U-Pd age and duration of the latest Devonian (Famennian) Hangenberg event, and its implications. Terra Nova, 26(3), 222-229. Link to abstract.

Blackburn, T.J., Olsen, P.E., Bowring, S.A., McLean, N.M., Kent, D.V., Puffer, J., McHone, G., Rasbury, E.T., Et-Touhami, M. (2013, May). Zircon U-Pb geochronology links the End-Triassic extinction with the central Atlantic magmatic province. Science, 340(6135). 941-945. Link.

Sun, Y., Joachimski, M. M., Wignall, P. B., Yan, C., Chen, Y., Jiang, H., ... & Lai, X. (2012). Lethally hot temperatures during the Early Triassic greenhouse. Science, 338(6105), 366-370. Link to PDF

Burgess, S. D., Bowring, S., & Shen, S. Z. (2014). High-precision timeline for Earth’s most severe extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(9), 3316-3321. Link to PDF.

POLAR BEARS   [top]

Summary of polar bear population status per 2014 (2015). IUCN/SSC PBSG. http://pbsg.npolar.no/en/status/status-table.html. Accessed online 06 April 2015

Bromaghin, J.F, McDonald, T. L., Stirling, I., Derocher, A.E., Richardson, E.S., Regehr, E.V., Douglas, D.C., Durner, G.M., Atwood, T. & Amstrup, S.C. (2015). Polar bear population dynamics in the southern Beaufort Sea during a period of sea ice decline. Ecological Applications, 25(3), 634–651. Link to PDF

Polar Bears International. (2015). “Polar Bears and Sea Ice Regions.” http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/where-do-polar-bears-live/polar-bears-sea-ice-regions

Regehr, E.V., Lunn, N.J., Amstrup, S.C. & Stirling, I. (2007). "Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay." Journal of Wildlife Management 71(8): 2673–2683. Link to pdf.

OCEAN ACIDIFICATION   [top]

Kleypas, J. A., Buddemeier, R. W., Archer, D., Gattuso, J. P., Langdon, C., & Opdyke, B. N. (1999). Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs. Science, 284(5411), 118-120. Link to PDF

Pelejero, C., Calvo, E., & Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2010). Paleo-perspectives on ocean acidification. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 25(6), 332-344. Link to PDF

OVERALL IMPACTS   [top]

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P. J., Hooten, A. J., Steneck, R. S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., ... & Hatziolos, M. E. (2007). Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. science, 318(5857), 1737-1742. Link to PDF

Mao-Jones, J., Ritchie, K. B., Jones, L. E., & Ellner, S. P. (2010). How microbial community composition regulates coral disease development. PLoS biology, 8(3), e1000345. Link to paper

Glynn, P. W., & D'croz, L. (1990). Experimental evidence for high temperature stress as the cause of El Nino-coincident coral mortality. Coral reefs, 8(4), 181-191. Link to paper

Eakin, C. M., Morgan, J. A., Heron, S. F., Smith, T. B., Liu, G., Alvarez-Filip, L., ... & Quinn, N. (2010). Caribbean corals in crisis: record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005. PloS one, 5(11), e13969. Link to paper

Coffroth, M. A., Poland, D. M., Petrou, E. L., Brazeau, D. A., & Holmberg, J. C. (2010). Environmental symbiont acquisition may not be the solution to warming seas for reef-building corals. PLoS One, 5(10), e13258. Link to paper

Rahmstorf, S. (2007). A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science, 315(5810), 368-370. Link to PDF

Vermeer, M., & Rahmstorf, S. (2009). Global sea level linked to global temperature. Proceedings of the national Academy of Sciences, 106(51), 21527-21532. Link to paper

CARBON DIOXIDE IS A POLLUTANT   [top]

Phosphate pollution http://water.usgs.gov/edu/phosphorus.html Accessed online 06 April 2015

MASSACHUSETTS v. E.P.A.NO. 05-1120.  127 S.Ct. 1438 (2007) MASSACHUSETTS et al., Petitioners, v. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY et al. Supreme Court of United States. Supreme Court decision available onlinehttp://www.leagle.com/decision/20071565127dsct1438_11562.xml/MASSACHUSETTS%20v.%20E.P.A. Accessed online 06 April 2015

US EPA Endangerment finding: "Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act" http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/endangerment/

Solomon, S., Plattner, G. K., Knutti, R., & Friedlingstein, P. (2009). Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 106(6), 1704-1709. Link to paper

Frölicher, T. L., Winton, M., & Sarmiento, J. L. (2014). Continued global warming after CO2 emissions stoppage. Nature Climate Change, 4(1), 40-44. Link to PDF

AGRICULTURAL IMPACTS   [top]

Porter, J.R.  L. Xie, A.J. Challinor, K.Cochrane, S.M. Howden, M.M. Iqbal, D.B. Lobell, & M.I. Travasso. (2014) Food security and food production systems. In: Climate Change 2014 :I mpacts,Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field,C.B., V.R.Barros, D.J.Dokken, K.J.Mach, M.D.Mastrandrea, T.E.Bilir, M.Chatterjee, K.L.Ebi, Y.O.Estrada, R.C.Genova, B.Girma, E.S.Kissel, A.N.Levy, S.MacCracken, P.R.Mastrandrea, and L.L.White(eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp.485-533. Link to PDF

EXTREME WEATHER   [top]

Hartmann, D.L., A.M.G. Klein Tank, M. Rusticucci, L.V. Alexander, S. Brönnimann, Y. Charabi, F.J. Dentener, E.J. Dlugokencky, D.R. Easterling, A. Kaplan, B.J. Soden, P.W. Thorne, M. Wild and P.M. Zhai, 2013: Observations: Atmosphere and Surface. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.  Link to PDF, pages 213-216, 226-228.

Lloyds of London 2014: "Catastrophe Modelling and Climate Change" Link to pdf. Accessed online 06 April 2015

Min, S. K., X. Zhang, F. W. Zwiers, and G. C. Hegerl (2011), Human contribution to more-intense precipitation extremes, Nature, 470, 378–381.  Link to abstract

Singh, D., Horton, D. E., Tsiang, M., Haugen, M., Ashfaq, M., Mei, R., ... & Diffenbaugh, N. S. (2014). Severe Precipitation in Northern India in June 2013:  Causes, historical context, and changes in probability.  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95(9), S58-S61. Link to PDF

Trenberth K. E. (2011), Changes in precipitation with climate change, Clim Res, 47:123-138.  Link to PDF

Trenberth, K. E. (2012), Framing the way to relate climate extremes to climate change, Climatic change 115: 283-290.  Link to PDF

HEAT WAVES   [top]

Beniston, M. (2009), Decadal-scale changes in the tails of probability distribution functions of climate variables in Switzerland. Int. J. Climatol., 29: 1362–1368. doi: 10.1002/joc.1793.  Link to Abstract

Della‐Marta, P. M., Haylock, M. R., Luterbacher, J., & Wanner, H. (2007). Doubled length of western European summer heat waves since 1880. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), 112(D15).  Link to PDF

Hartmann, D.L., A.M.G. Klein Tank, M. Rusticucci, L.V. Alexander, S. Brönnimann, Y. Charabi, F.J. Dentener, E.J. Dlugokencky, D.R. Easterling, A. Kaplan, B.J. Soden, P.W. Thorne, M. Wild and P.M. Zhai, 2013: Observations: Atmosphere and Surface. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.  Link to PDF, see pages 209-213, 218-219

IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.  Link to PDF, see pages 5, 7, 19, 20.

Stott, P. A., Stone, D. A., & Allen, M. R. (2004). Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003. Nature, 432(7017), 610-614.  Link to Abstract.  Link to interview with Stott.  

HURRICANES   [top]

Lloyds of London 2014: "Catastrophe Modelling and Climate Change" Link to pdf. Accessed online 06 April 2015.

Kollewe, J. (2014, May 8). Lloyd's calls on insurers to take into account climate-change risk. The Guardian. Link to article.

VOCAL MINORITY   [top]

Roser-Renouf, C., Stenhouse, N., Rolfe-Redding, J., Maibach, E. W., & Leiserowitz, A. (2014). Engaging Diverse Audiences with Climate Change: Message Strategies for Global Warming's Six Americas. Available at SSRN 2410650. Link to PDF

Leviston, Z., Walker, I., & Morwinski, S. (2013). Your opinion on climate change might not be as common as you think. Nature Climate Change, 3(4), 334-337. Link to paper

Boykoff, M. T., & Boykoff, J. M. (2004). Balance as bias: global warming and the US prestige press. Global environmental change, 14(2), 125-136. Link to PDF

Boykoff, M. T. (2008). Lost in translation? United States television news coverage of anthropogenic climate change, 1995–2004. Climatic Change, 86(1-2), 1-11. Link to PDF

WORLDVIEW BACKFIRE EFFECT   [top]

Batson, C. D. (1975). Rational processing or rationalization - effect of disconfirming information on a stated religious belief. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 176-184.  Link to PDF

Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U. K., Seifert, C. M., Schwarz, N., & Cook, J. (2012). Misinformation and its correction continued influence and successful debiasing. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 13(3), 106-131. Link to PDF

Nyhan, B., Reifler, J., Richey, S., & Freed, G. L. (2014). Effective messages in vaccine promotion: a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 133(4), e835-e842. Link to PDF

Nyhan, B., & Reifler, J. (2010). When corrections fail: The persistence of political misperceptions. Political Behavior, 32(2), 303-330. Link to PDF

Hart, P. S., & Nisbet, E. C. (2011). Boomerang effects in science communication: How motivated reasoning and identity cues amplify opinion polarization about climate mitigation policies. Communication Research, 0093650211416646. Link to PDF

Jern, A., Chang, K. M. K., & Kemp, C. (2014). Belief polarization is not always irrational. Psychological review, 121(2), 206. Link to PDF

Smith, N., & Leiserowitz, A. (2012). The rise of global warming skepticism: Exploring affective image associations in the United States over time. Risk Analysis, 32(6), 1021-1032. Link to PDF

Hardisty, D. J., Johnson, E. J., & Weber, E. U. (2010). A dirty word or a dirty world? Attribute framing, political affiliation, and query theory. Psychological Science, 21(1), 86-92. Link to PDF

Bain, P. G., Hornsey, M. J., Bongiorno, R., & Jeffries, C. (2012). Promoting pro-environmental action in climate change deniers. Nature Climate Change, 2(8), 600-603. Link to PDF

INOCULATION THEORY   [top]

A number of studies

Nyhan, B., Reifler, J., Richey, S., & Freed, G. L. (2014). Effective messages in vaccine promotion: a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 133(4), e835-e842. Link to PDF

Nyhan, B., & Reifler, J. (2010). When corrections fail: The persistence of political misperceptions. Political Behavior, 32(2), 303-330. Link to PDF

Hart, P. S., & Nisbet, E. C. (2011). Boomerang effects in science communication: How motivated reasoning and identity cues amplify opinion polarization about climate mitigation policies. Communication Research, 0093650211416646. Link to PDF

Case of climate science

Leviston, Z., Walker, I., & Morwinski, S. (2013). Your opinion on climate change might not be as common as you think. Nature Climate Change, 3(4), 334-337. Link to paper

Misinformation matters

Malka, A., Krosnick, J. A., Debell, M., Pasek, J., & Schneider, D. (2009). Featuring skeptics in news media stories about global warming reduces public beliefs in the seriousness of global warming. Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, Technical Paper Link to PDF

Clark, D., Ranney, M. A., & Felipe, J. (2013). Knowledge helps: Mechanistic information and numeric evidence as cognitive levers to overcome stasis and build public consensus on climate change. In Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2070-2075). Link to PDF

Over 50 years

McGuire, W. J., & Papageorgis, D. (1961). The relative efficacy of various types of prior belief-defense in producing immunity against persuasion. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62(2), 327. Link to abstract

One of the most effective ways

Tippett, C. D. (2010). Refutation text in science education: A review of two decades of research. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 8(6), 951-970. Link to PDF

A study done with 1st year psychology students

Kowalski, P., & Taylor, A. K. (2009). The effect of refuting misconceptions in the introductory psychology class. Teaching of Psychology, 36(3), 153-159. Link to abstract

Study of physics students

Muller, D. A., Bewes, J., Sharma, M. D., & Reimann, P. (2008). Saying the wrong thing: Improving learning with multimedia by including misconceptions. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(2), 144-155. Link to abstract

STICKY SCIENCE   [top]

Schwarz, N., Sanna, L. J., Skurnik, I., & Yoon, C. (2007). Metacognitive experiences and the intricacies of setting people straight: Implications for debiasing and public information campaigns. Advances in experimental social psychology, 39, 127-161. Link to PDF

Skurnik, I., Yoon, C., Park, D. C., & Schwarz, N. (2005). How warnings about false claims become recommendations. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 713-724. Link to PDF

Seifert, C. M. (2002). The continued influence of misinformation in memory: What makes a correction effective?. Psychology of learning and motivation41, 265-292. Link to PDF

Nyhan, B. & Reifler, J. (2013b). Which corrections work? Research results and practice recommendations. New America Foundation Research ReportLink to PDF

Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2007). Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die. Random House.

FLU SHOTS   [top]

Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2007). Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die. Random House.

Johnson, H. M., & Seifert, C. M. (1994). Sources of the continued influence effect: When misinformation in memory affects later inferences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1420–1436. Link to PDF

Tenney, E. R., Cleary, H. M. D., & Spellman, B. A. (2009). Unpacking the doubt in “beyond a reasonable doubt”: Plausible alternative stories increase not guilty verdicts. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 31, 1–8. Link to abstract

McGuire, W. J., & Papageorgis, D. (1961). The relative efficacy of various types of prior belief-defense in producing immunity against persuasion. Public Opinion Quarterly, 26, 24-34.

Banas, J. A., & Rains, S. A. (2010). A meta-analysis of research on inoculation theory. Communication Monographs, 77(3), 281-311. Link to PDF

Diethelm, P., & McKee, M. (2009). Denialism: what is it and how should scientists respond?. The European Journal of Public Health, 19(1), 2-4. Link to paper

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