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Skeptical Science New Research for Week #9, 2021

Posted on 3 March 2021 by doug_bostrom

Why New Research?

Skeptical Science exists for the purpose of improving public capacity for critical thinking about anthropogenic  climate change. Effective critical analysis requires a firm basis of competent information, and for our purpose the wellsprings of fundamental understanding are found in peer-reviewed academic literature, our best grasp of how Earth's climate operates and how we're changing its operation and thus changing a myriad of dependencies on climate behavior. New Research provides a direct, distilled and easily accessed link to ongoing progress on understanding and coping with the climate change we're causing.

Beyond its immediate functional objective, there is a big picture visible in the content of New Research, with some details captured in that image themselves helpful for assessing the worth of concern over our recently invented form of rapid climate change. 

  • New Research includes all papers reasonably relevant to the topic of anthropogenic climate change appearing in our raw feeds from scientific publishers; our purpose is not to put a thumb on the scale of research output so as to cause a slant. Over the course of 2020 we listed some 4,569 articles in our weekly compilations. None of these disagree with the concept of our warming Earth due to GHG emissions. A small proportion of these publications identify selectively positive effects of global warming, notably and necessarily founded on agreement on the effect we're having on climate. We're working on a proper count of article authors, but positing the safe bet that an average of three authors are found collaborating on each paper, we can immediately conclude that those disagreeing with the possibility of anthropogenic climate change are so remote from actual scientific understanding that they must be either deeply ignorant or in a state of profoundly deep denial. Ratios are information.
  • Over the course of a year we list many hundreds of articles describing observations of climate change effects visible to instrumentation now, in the present. Again, this involves a prodigious number of authors. "It's not happening" is a non-starter; when this claim is heard, it's easy to provide factual correction by referring to any given issue of New Research.
  • The climate modeling and simulation section of New Research is a helpful indication that models have long been adequate as early warning indicators of what will happen to climate as we continue to add GHGs to the atmosphere. It's easy to see that model output is entirely up to the demands made on model capacity for the purpose of helping to answer big public policy questions. We also maintain a section on climate model advancement revealing where attention to model improvements is being concentrated. This ongoing work is for the most part concerned with zeroing in on smaller scale effects to refine understanding of particular aspects of climate behavior and to improve increasingly detailed regional climate modeling. "Models are unreliable" is a position of misinformation from the perspective of "do we know enough to shape policy?". 
  • "CO2 is plant food" and variations on this theme are increasingly common as it becomes more obvious that old-fashioned straight-up climate science denial is past its shelf life. This is perhaps a way of building acceptance of an insidious form of pollution, or more benignly plain old wishful thinking. In the biology and agricultural sections of New Research is a fuller picture of how Earth's vegetable biome and its dependents may fare as we change our climate. More particularly to us humans the section devoted to agriculture and agronomy is informative, where the picture is cloudy with a distinctly dark tinge. "CO2 is plant food" is a gross oversimplification and in fact appears to be glossing over features unfolding as significant net negatives in our emerging future. Unfortunately, perusing relevant research to any similar dismissive and intellectually truncated summation of our accidental climate modification will yield the same general result.

Those are just a few examples of the meta-message of New Research when a week's listings are asked "what's the takeaway?. No spin is necessary. Scientifically speaking, we have our act together on climate change, and those claiming otherwise or offering unrealistically hopeful assessments have little or no grounds for their stance, just by a glance at any week's edition.  

Research on public policy replies to climate change for mitigation and adaptation purposes found in New Research paints a fairly grim picture of the monumental challenge we face in coming to grips with our problem. The tractability of this problem is as much a matter of human nature and our innate ability for certain modes of cognition as is it down to technical capacity. We won't be able to optimize our way out of the trouble we've created without doing a better job of thinking. New Research is a small part of this work. 

Housekeeping:

We're gradually incorporating more API opportunities for sourcing article metadata in our listings. Due to constraints on available labor, this is a rolling operation. Readers may notice that (in this issue, for instance) some articles are missing some or all metadata, a situation soon to be corrected as API integration is driven further. This missing information is not a reflection on the worth of a given article.

111 Articles

Physical science of climate change, effects

The effect of the differences in near-infrared water vapour continuum models on the absorption of solar radiation
Menang et al 2021 Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics
DOI: 10.1007/s00703-021-00781-6

Observations of climate change, effects

Current Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation weakest in last millennium
Caesar et al 2021 Nature Geoscience
DOI: 10.1038/s41561-021-00699-z

A 30-year reconstruction of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation shows no decline
Worthington et al 2020
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.5194/os-17-285-2021

Comment on 'On the relationship between Atlantic meridional overturning circulation slowdown and global surface warming'

Reply to Comment on ‘On the relationship between Atlantic meridional overturning circulation slowdown and global surface warming’

A Multidecadal-Scale Tropically Driven Global Teleconnection over the Past Millennium and Its Recent Strengthening 

Feng et al 2020 Journal of Climate
DOI: 10.1175/jcli-d-20-0216.1

Three-decadal destabilization of vegetation activity on the Mongolian Plateau
Zhao et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abd81d

Potential role of permafrost thaw on increasing Siberian river discharge
Wang et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abe326

Increasing tropical cyclone intensity and potential intensity in the subtropical Atlantic around Bermuda from an ocean heat content perspective 1955–2019
Hallam et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abe493

Elevation-dependent trends in extreme snowfall in the French Alps from 1959 to 2019
Le Roux et al 2021
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.5194/tc-2021-64 (preprint)

An assessment of long-term changes in mortalities due to extreme weather events in India: A study of 50 years’ data, 1970–2019

1/4 to 1/3 of observed warming trends in China from 1980 to 2015 are attributed to land use changes
Shen & Zhao 2021 Climatic Change
DOI: 10.1007/s10584-021-03045-9

Climate Extremes across the North American Arctic in Modern Reanalyses
Avila-Diaz et al 2021 Journal of Climate
DOI: 10.1175/jcli-d-20-0093.1

Change in mean and extreme temperature at Yingkou station in Northeast China from 1904 to 2017
Xue et al 2021 Climatic Change
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1007/s10584-021-02981-w

Surface air pressure–based reconstruction of tropical cyclones affecting Hong Kong since the late nineteenth century
Zhang et al 2021 Climatic Change
DOI: 10.1007/s10584-021-03028-w

Recent increasing frequency of compound summer drought and heatwaves in Southeast Brazil
Geirinhas et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abe0eb

Decadal-scale hotspot methane ebullition within lakes following abrupt permafrost thaw
Anthony et al 2020 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abc848

Increasing rates of subalpine tree mortality linked to warmer and drier summers
Andrus et al 2020
DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.13634

The implications of the recently recognized mid-20th century shift in the Earth system
Turney & Fogwill 2021 The Anthropocene Review
DOI: 10.1177/2053019621995526

Recent changes in temperature and precipitation indices in the Southern Carpathians, Romania (1961–2018)
Micu et al 2021 Theoretical and Applied Climatology
DOI: 10.1007/s00704-021-03560-w

Extreme Snow Events along the Coast of the Northeast United States: Potential Changes due to Global Warming
Chen et al 2021 Journal of Climate
DOI: 10.1175/jcli-d-20-0197.1

Inventory and changes of rock glacier creep speeds in Ile Alatau and Kungöy Ala-Too, northern Tien Shan, since the 1950s
Kääb et al 2021 The Cryosphere
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.5194/tc-15-927-2021

Instrumentation & observational methods of climate change, effects

Remote sensing of greenhouse gas emissions
Zhang et al 2019 Vietnam Journal of Science, Technology and Engineering,
Open Access DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.1010-1012.1258

The Observed Relationship between Pacific SST Variability and Hadley Cell Extent Trends in Reanalyses
Rollings & Merlis 2021 Journal of Climate
DOI: 10.1175/jcli-d-20-0410.1

Spatiotemporal changes in aerosol properties by hygroscopic growth and impacts on radiative forcing and heating rates during DISCOVER-AQ 2011 (preprint)

Modeling, simulation & projection of climate change, effects MSWE

Decomposing the Drivers of Polar Amplification with a Single-Column Model

Idealized Aquaplanet Simulations of Tropical Cyclone Activity: Significance of Temperature Gradients, Hadley Circulation, and Zonal Asymmetry

Climate hazard indices projections based on CORDEX-CORE, CMIP5 and CMIP6 ensemble
Coppola 2020
DOI: 10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-15001

Future extreme heat wave events using Bayesian heat wave intensity-persistence day-frequency model and their uncertainty
Lee et al 2021 Atmospheric Research
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105541

Exploring uncertainties in global crop yield projections in a large ensemble of crop models and CMIP5 and CMIP6 climate scenarios
Müller et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abd8fc

Permafrost sensitivity to global warming of 1.5 °C and 2 °C in the Northern Hemisphere
Liu et al 2020 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abd6a8

On the statistical properties of sea-ice lead fraction and heat fluxes in the Arctic
Ólason et al 2021 The Cryosphere
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.5194/tc-15-1053-2021

A Multivariate Assessment of Climate Change Projections over South America using CMIP5
Thaler et al 2020
Open Access DOI: 10.1002/joc.7072

Nonlinear Response of Atmospheric Blocking to Early Winter Barents–Kara Seas Warming: An Idealized Model Study
Chen et al 2021 Journal of Climate
DOI: 10.1175/jcli-d-19-0720.1

Ensemble projection of city-level temperature extremes with stepwise cluster analysis
Lu et al 2021 Climate Dynamics
DOI: 10.1007/s00382-021-05644-9

Advances in climate & climate effects modeling, simulation & projection

Evaluation of the performance of bias-corrected CORDEX regional climate models in reproducing Baro–Akobo basin climate
Mengistu et al 2021 Theoretical and Applied Climatology
DOI: 10.1007/s00704-021-03552-w

An observational equatorial Atlantic Ocean constraint on Indian monsoon precipitation projections
Shamal & Sanjay 2021 Climate Dynamics
DOI: 10.1007/s00382-021-05703-1

On the uncertainty of future projections of Marine Heatwave events in the North Atlantic Ocean
Plecha et al 2021 Climate Dynamics
DOI: 10.1007/s00382-020-05529-3

Understanding the model representation of clouds based on visible and infrared satellite observations
Geiss et al 2021
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.5194/acp-2021-5 (preprint)

Cryosphere & climate change

On the Role of the Antarctic Slope Front on the Occurrence of the Weddell Sea Polynya under Climate Change
Lockwood et al 2021 Journal of Climate
DOI: 10.1175/jcli-d-20-0069.1

The distribution and evolution of supraglacial lakes on the 79° N Glacier (northeast Greenland) and interannual climatic controls (preprint)

SAR-derived flow velocity and its link to glacier surface elevation change and mass balance

A mechanism for regional variations in snowpack melt under rising temperature

On the Generation of Weddell Sea Polynyas in a High-Resolution Earth System Model
Kurtakoti et al 2021 Journal of Climate
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1175/jcli-d-20-0229.1

Permafrost sensitivity to global warming of 1.5 °C and 2 °C in the Northern Hemisphere
Liu et al 2020 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abd6a8

Changes in precipitation and air temperature contribute comparably to permafrost degradation in a warmer climate
Mekonnen et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abc444

The 32-year record-high surface melt in 2019/2020 on the northern George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula
Banwell et al 2021 The Cryosphere
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.5194/tc-15-909-2021

Paleoclimate

A reassessment of the impact of temperature change on European conflict during the second millennium CE using a bespoke Bayesian time-series model

Eddy permitting simulations of freshwater injection from major Northern Hemisphere outlets during the last deglacial
Love et al 2021
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.5194/cp-2021-15 (preprint)

Biology & climate change

Three-decadal destabilization of vegetation activity on the Mongolian Plateau
Zhao et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abd81d

Impact of climate change on sensitive marine and extreme terrestrial ecosystems: Recent progresses and future challenges
Chen 2021 Ambio
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1007/s13280-020-01446-1

Global warming triggers coral reef bleaching tipping point
Goreau & Hayes 2021 Ambio
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1007/s13280-021-01512-2

Climate change reshapes the eco?evolutionary dynamics of a Neotropical seed dispersal system
Sales et al 2021 Global Ecology and Biogeography
DOI: 10.1111/geb.13271

Reduced seawater pH alters marine biofilms with impacts for marine polychaete larval settlement
Espinel-Velasco et al 2021 Marine Environmental Research
DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2021.105291

Species-specific climate–growth interactions determine tree species dynamics in mixed Central European mountain forests
Kašpar et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abd8fb

Climate warming extends growing season but not reproductive phase of terrestrial plants
Liu et al 2021 Global Ecology and Biogeography
DOI: 10.1111/geb.13269

Risk and vulnerability of Mongolian grasslands under climate change
Nandintsetseg et al 2020
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abdb5b

Increasing rates of subalpine tree mortality linked to warmer and drier summers
Andrus et al 2020
DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.13634

Warming matters: alpine plant responses to experimental warming
Fazlioglu & Wan 2021 Climatic Change
DOI: 10.1007/s10584-021-02996-3

Physiological responses of Skeletonema costatum to the interactions of seawater acidification and the combination of photoperiod and temperature
Li et al 2020
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.5194/bg-18-1439-2021

GHG sources & sinks, flux

Drivers of change in US residential energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, 1990–2015

African burned area and fire carbon emissions are strongly impacted by small fires undetected by coarse resolution satellite data
Ramo et al 2021 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011160118

Estimates of methane emissions from Chinese rice fields using the DNDC model

Are there memory effects on greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) following grassland restoration?

Urban-focused satellite CO2 observations from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3: A first look at the Los Angeles megacity
Kiel et al 2021 Remote Sensing of Environment
Open Access DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2021.112314

Decoupling of urban CO2 and air pollutant emission reductions during the European SARS-CoV-2 lockdown

Future carbon emissions from global mangrove forest loss
Adame et al 2021 Global Change Biology
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1101/2020.08.27.271189

Prediction of CO 2 emission from greenhouse to atmosphere with artificial neural networks and deep learning neural networks

The influence of atmospheric intraseasonal oscillations on terrestrial biospheric CO 2 fluxes in Southeast China Forest

Decadal-scale hotspot methane ebullition within lakes following abrupt permafrost thaw
Anthony et al 2020 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abc848

Climate implications on forest above- and belowground carbon allocation patterns along a tropical elevation gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro (Tanzania)
Sierra Cornejo et al 2021 Oecologia
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1007/s00442-021-04860-8

High-resolution forest carbon mapping for climate mitigation baselines over the RGGI region, USA
Tang et al 2020 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abd2ef

Trends and drivers of African fossil fuel CO 2 emissions 1990–2017

CO2 removal & mitigation science & engineering

Carbon prospecting in tropical forests for climate change mitigation
Koh et al 2021 Nature Communications
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-21560-2

Geoengineering climate

Estimating the potential cooling effect of cirrus thinning achieved via the seeding approach
Liu & Shi 2021
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.5194/acp-2021-148 (preprint)

Decarbonization

Demand-side decarbonization and electrification: EMF 35 JMIP study

Demand response and energy justice: A critical overview of ethical risks and opportunities within digital, decentralised, and decarbonised futures
Calver & Simcock 2021 Energy Policy
DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112198

Climate change communications & cognition

Considering attitudinal uncertainty in the climate change skepticism continuum
Haltinner & Sarathchandra 2021 Global Environmental Change
DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102243

Barriers, emotions, and motivational levers for lifestyle transformation in Norwegian household decarbonization pathways
Moberg et al 2021 Climatic Change
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1007/s10584-021-03018-y

Agenda-Setting Effects of Climate Change Litigation: Interrelations Across Issue Levels, Media, and Politics in the Case of Urgenda Against the Dutch Government
Wonneberger & Vliegenthart 2021 Environmental Communication
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1080/17524032.2021.1889633

Media Framing of Climate Change Action in Carbon Locked-in Developing Countries: Adaptation or Mitigation?
Cochelin et al 2019 International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology
Open Access DOI: 10.1007/978-3-7091-1791-0_8

News Media Framing of Grassroots Innovations in Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden
Magnusson et al 2021 Environmental Communication
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1080/17524032.2021.1880460

Reviewing the scope and thematic focus of 100 000 publications on energy consumption, services and social aspects of climate change: a big data approach to demand-side mitigation
Creutzig et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abd78b

Agronomy, animal husbundry, food production & climate change

Understanding the combined impacts of weeds and climate change on crops
Vilà et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abe14b

Guidelines for co-creating climate adaptation plans for fisheries and aquaculture
Pham et al 2021 Climatic Change
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1007/s10584-021-03041-z

Exploring uncertainties in global crop yield projections in a large ensemble of crop models and CMIP5 and CMIP6 climate scenarios
Müller et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abd8fc

Do integrated landscape approaches moderate climate impacts on livelihoods? A review of the evidence from agricultural landscapes
Duncan et al 2021 Regional Environmental Change
DOI: 10.1007/s10113-021-01754-6

Participatory modelling for climate change adaptation: the poultry sector in Nigeria
Olabisi et al 2021 Climate Policy
Open Access DOI: 10.1080/14693062.2021.1891019

The role of crop diversity in climate change adaptation: insights from local observations to inform decision making in agriculture
Labeyrie et al 2021 Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
DOI: 10.1016/j.cosust.2021.01.006

Economics & finance of climate change & mitigation

Power sector investment implications of climate impacts on renewable resources in Latin America and the Caribbean
Santos da Silva et al 2021 Nature Communications
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-21502-y

Climate change mitigation public policy research

The technological and social timelines of climate mitigation: Lessons from 12 past transitions

Reducing vehicle cold start emissions through carbon pricing: evidence from Germany
Frondel et al 2021 SSRN Electronic Journal
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abde06

Dynamic interactive effect and co-design of SO2 emission tax and CO2 emission trading scheme

Increasing the ambition of mitigation action in small emitters: the case of Mauritius
Deenapanray 2021 Climate Policy
DOI: 10.1080/14693062.2021.1886898

The economic and environmental costs and benefits of the renewable fuel standard
Chen et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abd7af

Spatial planning factors that influence CO2 emissions: A systematic literature review

Managing the mitigation: Analysis of the effectiveness of target-based policies on China's provincial carbon emission and transfer
Li et al 2021 Energy Policy
DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112189

Introduction to the special feature on energy scenarios for long-term climate change mitigation in Japan
Sugiyama et al 2021 Sustainability Science
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1007/s11625-021-00931-0

Climate change impacts on human health

An assessment of long-term changes in mortalities due to extreme weather events in India: A study of 50 years’ data, 1970–2019

Climate change adaptation & adaptation public policy research

Spatial planning for water sustainability projects under climate uncertainty: balancing human and environmental water needs
Fovargue et al 2021 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abdd58

Systemic criticality—a new assessment concept improving the evidence basis for CI protection
Kruse et al 2021 Climatic Change
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1007/s10584-021-03019-x

Navigating the Anthropocene’s rivers of risk—climatic change and science-policy dilemmas in Australia’s Murray-Darling Basin
Alexandra 2021 Climatic Change
DOI: 10.1007/s10584-021-03036-w

Guidelines for co-creating climate adaptation plans for fisheries and aquaculture
Pham et al 2021 Climatic Change
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1007/s10584-021-03041-z

Assessing urban heat-related adaptation strategies under multiple futures for a major U.S. city
Rohat et al 2021 Climatic Change
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1007/s10584-021-02990-9

The Florida Water and Climate Alliance (FloridaWCA): Developing a Stakeholder–Scientist Partnership to Create Actionable Science in Climate Adaptation and Water Resource Management
Misra et al 2020 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1175/bams-d-19-0302.1

Responses of the Tharu to climate change-related hazards in the water sector: Indigenous perceptions, vulnerability and adaptations in the western Tarai of Nepal

When adaptation increases energy demand: A systematic map of the literature
Viguie et al 2020 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abc044

Mapping the evolution and current trends in climate change adaptation science
Nalau & Verrall 2021 Climate Risk Management
Open Access DOI: 10.1016/j.crm.2021.100290

Climate characteristics and the adaptation level to formulate mitigation strategies for a climate-resilient archaeological park
Binarti et al 2021 Urban Climate
DOI: 10.1016/j.uclim.2021.100811

Climate change impacts on human culture

Responding to the climate emergency: how are UK universities establishing sustainable workplace routines for flying and food?
Hoolohan et al 2021 Climate Policy
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1080/14693062.2021.1881426

Gender, ethnicity and vulnerability to climate change: The case of matrilineal and patrilineal societies in Bamenda Highlands Region, Cameroon
Azong & Kelso 2021 Global Environmental Change
DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102241

Other

Understanding compound hazards from a weather system perspective
Catto & Dowdy 2021 Weather and Climate Extremes
Open Access DOI: 10.1016/j.wace.2021.100313

Quantifying the Uncertainty of the Future Hydrological Impacts of Climate Change: Comparative Analysis of an Advanced Hierarchical Sensitivity in Humid and Semiarid Basins
Ju et al 2021 Journal of Hydrometeorology
DOI: 10.1175/jhm-d-20-0016.1

Rethinking extreme heat in a cool climate: a New Zealand case study
Harrington 2020 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abbd61

Informed opinion, nudges & major initiatives

Core Concept: Integrated assessment climate policy models have proven useful, with caveats
Vaidyanathan 2021 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101899118

At the frontier of climate change: Red alert from the European Alps, the Arctic and coral reefs
Wulff 2021 Ambio
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1007/s13280-021-01514-0

Icy mountains in a warming world: Revisiting science from the end of the 1990s in the early 2020s
Haeberli & Beniston 2021 Ambio
Open Access pdf DOI: 10.1007/s13280-021-01513-1

The climate, land, energy, and water systems (CLEWs) framework: a retrospective of activities and advances to 2019
Ramos et al 2020 Environmental Research Letters
Open Access DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abd34f

 


Obtaining articles wihout journal subscriptions

We know it's frustrating that many articles we cite here are not free to read. One-off paid access fees are generally astronomically priced, suitable for such as "On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light but not as a gamble on unknowns. With a median world income of US$ 9,373, for most of us US$ 42 is significant money to wager on an article's relevance and importance. 

  • Unpaywall offers a browser extension for Chrome and Firefox that automatically indicates when an article is freely accessible and provides immediate access without further trouble. Unpaywall is also unscammy, works well, is itself offered free to use. The organizers (a legitimate nonprofit) report about a 50% success rate
  • The weekly New Research catch is checked against the Unpaywall database with accessible items being flagged. Especially for just-published articles this mechansim may fail. If you're interested in an article title and it is not listed here as "open access," be sure to check the link anyway. 

How is New Research assembled?

Most articles appearing here are found via  RSS feeds from journal publishers, filtered by search terms to produce raw output for assessment of relevance. 

Relevant articles are then queried against the Unpaywall database, to identify open access articles and expose useful metadata for articles appearing in the database. 

The objective of New Research isn't to cast a tinge on scientific results, to color readers' impressions. Hence candidate articles are assessed via two metrics only:

  • Was an article deemed of sufficient merit by a team of journal editors and peer reviewers? The fact of journal RSS output assigns a "yes" to this automatically. 
  • Is an article relevant to the topic of anthropogenic climate change? Due to filter overlap with other publication topics of inquiry, of a typical week's 550 or so input articles about 1/4 of RSS output makes the cut.

A few journals offer public access to "preprint" versions of articles for which the review process is not yet complete. As it is the journal's decision to do so, we respect that and include such items in New Research. These are flagged as "preprint."

The section "Informed opinion, nudges & major initiatives" includes some items that are not scientific research per se but fall instead into the category of "perspectives," observations of implications of research findings, areas needing attention, etc.

Articles are presented with a title link via the original publisher URL so as to preserve provenance information, and when (usually) available, a more permanent DOI link. When a publicly accessible PDF version of an article is found, a direct link is provided.

Suggestions

Please let us know if you're aware of an article you think may be of interest for Skeptical Science research news, or if we've missed something that may be important. Send your input to Skeptical Science via our contact form.

Journals covered

A list of journals we cover may be found here. We welcome pointers to omissions, new journals etc.

Previous edition

The previous edition of Skeptical Science New Research may be found here.

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  1. I found doug-bostrom's posting very helpful inasmuch as it focused on several issues that can be discussed in a frendly atmosphere.  The first is the warming of our invironment in the US in the years since the end of WW2.  at the end of the war we had a population of 14o million.  Housing developments were built on what was farm land.  Power plants were built,  both nuclear fossil fuel.  The interstate HWY system was built. plus a lot of secondary roads.  Dams were built for the purpose of generating electricity.  The Marble canyon dam created the enormus Lake Powel.  I don't know the impact of Lake Powel, I leave that to the experts.  The St. Lawrence Seaway project was built to genrtate electricity.  New power lines were built to transmit all the new power.  At least 30 pct of transmited power is lost to the environment.  We built shopping centers, high rise buildings, waste water treatment plants which were designed to use the aerobic process, drinking water treatment plants. solid waste disposal methods which were very energy  Americans had to pay for all of the above energy intensive projects, so to call them deniers is unfair. The next issue I want to deal with is the measurement of energy in the environment.  We have heated up our invironment, and I assume it can be decteded by sattelites,  but there is hidden energy which can be computed but not detected.  To prove my point I chose to pick a municipal reservoir used for drinking water.  Such reservoirs are closely monitored for PH, temp. etc.  The water is soft and the goal is to keep it that way.  Said reservoir recieves a certain amount of solar radiation every day, which can be estimated.  Once the energy is adsorbed by the water it is essentialy in storage, we cannot measure it, and it doesn't matter where we try to measure it,  we cannot see it.  If we know the temp. of the water we can calculate how much energy is lost through evaporation.  When the evaporation process  takes place, we still cannot takr a direct measurement of the watervapor.  The watervapor will eventually cool and release it's energy.  So it looks to me like we have an energy transfer system to which our instruments are totally blind.

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  2. Jamesh:

    Your first question relates to waste heat.  The thread for waste heat is here.  If you look at this post you will find a response I posted in 2010 to someone else who didn't understand waste heat.  Read the waste heat thread.  Your questions have already been answered.

    Your second question relates to the measurement of energy in the environment.  Professional scientists know how to measure all the energy in the environment.  In your example the energy can be measured by the temperature change of the water.  The evaporation can be measured.  The graph of increasing ocean heat content (posted for you by the moderator on another thread but now lost since you posted off topic) is measured this way.  The local temperature change from artifical lakes is known and the temperature change from increasing evaporation due to irrigation is also measured and known.  The heat absorbed by melting ice is known.  There is no hidden energy.

    We all start out not knowing how measurements are made.  As we gain experience we learn how more and more things are done.  I recommend that you assume scientists have measured anything you can think of.  That will be correct most of the time.

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  3. Great intro. My story: I started checking New Research back in 2019 and haven't missed a week ever since. By far the best part of this site.

    I save every paper with an observed, negative impact on humanity into a database. To my knowledge no such database exists anywhere else. I've added over 70 papers to my database thanks to this list and it's great to be able to get the "latest and greatest" from here. 

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  4. You climate change people talk about anthropogenic global warming (AGW), but is this AGW really "global"?  Well, warming has certainly happened in some parts of the world, but in other regions such as the midwestern and northeastern continental US, temperatures have dropped by about 25 degrees F during the winter months from years before 2015.  In Colorado, we have seen relatively mild winters during the past 5-6 years due to drought conditions, but the summers have also been "milder" (ie. cooler).  This results in much shorter growing seasons even though annual average temperatures may or may not have changed much.  The ground in many places remains frozen and therefore not suitable for tilling until mid-June.  Then killer frosts occur in the late August to early September time frame — not much time for growing.  One might argue that our problems are related to cooling, and not warming.

    Therefore, it seems that your AGW isn't as "global" as we were led to believe.  Furthermore, we would expect that warming caused by the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect would be more or less uniform since CO2 tends to spread evenly in the atmosphere over long time intervals.

    In view of these simple facts, we must ask if the CO2 greenhouse effect is the best explanation of any warming we are experiencing.  Also, AGW believers ultimately base their claims on an increasing global mean surface temperature (GMST).  But is this actually a meaningful figure of merit for assessing planetary warming?

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  5. SunBurst @4,

    Your detailed account of US temperature sits within a wider annual trend. The GISS mapping tool mapping warming 1980-to-date shows individual years averaged over a month can be cold in certain regions and even a decade of a single month can show cold. Thus October in the northern mid-west US shows a bit of cooling when averaged over a decade (and a similar area shows no warming through April/May), but these are some of the few exceptions in a global-wide warming evident over the full year mapped out below.

    GISS 2010-20 v 1951-80

    I would suggest, contrary to your assertion, that this does indicate that "AGW is global."

     

    You also argue that, if CO2 is spread evenly in the atmosphere (which it is, global rises are measured up to 50km with perhaps a two-year lag between the hemespheres), the warming should be also seen uniformly across the globe.

    Yet the climate is a far more complex thing. While the sun provides a uniform warming by latitude, the map below (from here) shows some significant variations within latitude, this seen even on a temperature scale perhaps 10x wider than the anomaly map above.

    It is these variations that define the detailed average temperature of a latitude and these variations do not simply get warmer uniformly in a warming world.

    Global absolute temperature map measured

    We would thus expect regional variations in the rate of AGW.

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  6. MA Rodger @5

    We would thus expect regional variations in the rate of AGW.

    I agree in that we would not expect perfectly uniform warming, but when temperatures show a downward trend in some regions that is equally as strong as the upward trend in other regions, it definitely raises doubts about global warming.  As I stated in my first posting, global warming means warming over the entire global, which certainly isn't happening.  Also, many pro-AGW articles focus on the thawing permafrost in Alaska and the summer-like temperatures in London or Paris during the December-January months, but neglect the frozen-over Niagra Falls and ports on the Great Lakes, massive numbers of burst water mains in Chicago, shorter growing seasons in agricultural areas, and dozens of hypothermic deaths in cities throughout the midwestern and northeastern states.  For people in these regions, global warming is not the problem and fossil fuels are necessary for making a living, or even just surviving.  These people simply cannot afford governments imposing additional taxes (or "cap and trade") for their use of fossil fuels.  Also, they can't afford governments shutting down pipelines or making "national monuments" of regions rich in methane.

    Finally, with the failed prediction track records of Al Gore and other pro-AGW politicians,  it cannot reasonably be expected that Americans would be more concerned about global warming than fixing the economy and getting back to work.

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  7. Starburst @6

    "I agree in that we would not expect perfectly uniform warming, but when temperatures show a downward trend in some regions that is equally as strong as the upward trend in other regions, it definitely raises doubts about global warming. As I stated in my first posting, global warming means warming over the entire global, which certainly isn't happening."

    My understanding is most regions of the world show warming. The few regions showing cooling or no change do not have enough cooling to offset the warming in the regions with warming. This means the world as a whole is warming. This is commonsense. Scientists measure all these things and take it all into account because they are basic things. The heat energy content of the entire planetary system has also increased in the last several decades. Again scientists look into these things because its what they are trained to do.

    If you still dont understand or agree, please provide a list of all countries in the world and its oceans as well, and their warming rates and cooling rates (if there are any) over the last 50 years and we shall see which dominates, - warming or cooling. Until you do this in detail, with links to all your data, and making sure you are comparing like with like, you have got nothing worth me considering.

    "For people in these regions, global warming is not the problem and fossil fuels are necessary for making a living, or even just surviving. These people simply cannot afford governments imposing additional taxes (or "cap and trade") for their use of fossil fuels. "

    I sympathise with the challenges people face, but these comments about what they can afford are just empty assertions. On what basis with what facts? What expert study says this? Even if they had difficulties affording this you can have carbon tax and dividend schemes which are financially gentle on people (google it).

    Many expert reports like the Stern Report find we can mitigate the worst of climate change at a cost of approximately 2% of global gdp per year. This is very roughly equivalent to 2% of peoples incomes. I suggest all but very poor people can afford that, and poor people can be given finanical assistance by governmnet so they can cope or could be excluded from carbon tax schemes. At least some countries do this sort of thing. I dont have time to list them all but this sort of thing is eassily googled.

    "Finally, with the failed prediction track records of Al Gore and other pro-AGW politicians,..."

    You provide no evidence of these alleged failed predictions. But its not relevant anyway , because the IPCC reports about climate change are not based on anything Al Gore said. The IPCC and climate scientists make their predictions based on science, and so far warming trends are very close to predictions made decades ago. Refer:

    www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2020/01/update-day-2020/

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  8. StarBurst @6,

    You tell me:-

    "I agree in that we would not expect perfectly uniform warming, but when temperatures show a downward trend in some regions that is equally as strong as the upward trend in other regions, it definitely raises doubts about global warming."

    Then you describe cold weather in Niagra Falls & Chicago, But do does that indicate locations showing a downward trend?

    February 2015 was a cold month in both these locations, in Chicago the 4th coldest on record and in Buffalo the 2nd. But cold months way below the average are seen in the records at both locations. Such events are surely to be expected. They are not part of a downward trend. The trend at both locations is upward!!

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  9. nigelj @ 7

    SunBurst

    As you rightly point out Al Gore's expertise is not the issue as suggested by SunBurst. However I would like SunBurst to list one prediction by Al Gore that "failed" because I do not think SunBurst will be able to list one.

    Al Gore may have had a tendency to frame his narrative in rather doom laden terms and his desire to dramatise for effect gave ammunition for criticism. But he was fairly accurate.

    The only prediction SunBurst is likely to come up with is Arctic ice. An accurate understanding of exactly what Gore said on this does not add up to a prediction. (Though you could criticise the words for dramatising a worst case scenario.)

     

     

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  10. SunBurst, you are confusing weather for climate. Take a look here: Does cold weather disprove global warming?

    As MA Rodger pointed out @8, one year's cold temperatures (weather) need to be looked at in the larger context (climate) to see if there is any trend. Deke Arndt, in this tweet, summed this up well for the continental US, for Feb:

    Deke Arndt coldest Feb 1

     

    Now compare this year's Feb to Febs from earlier in the 20th century:

    Deke Arndt coldest Feb 2

     

    Do you see the trend? That is global warming.

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  11. I'm very curious where SunBurst finds cooling "that is equally as strong as the upward trend" because I'm just not seeing it.

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  12. MA Rodger, nigelj, John Seers, David Kirtley, Rob Honeycutt

    You all seem to be stuck on using global averages as your only way of characterizing global temperature trends.  You must, however, consider the Big Picture in that "global warming" really isn't global unless the upward temperature trends are happening everywhere, and I have pointed out several regions where exactly the opposite is happening.  This is especially true in the case where the warming is caused by the CO2 greenhouse effect since CO2 is non-condensing and therefore stays in the atmosphere long enough to become more or less evenly spread.  In this case, would it not be much more logical that the greenhouse warming would also be evenly spread instead of some regions showing great warming and other regions showing great cooling?  You miss this sort of thing by relying only on global average temperatures.  

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    Moderator Response:

    [DB] Does "global warming" mean it’s warming everywhere?

    "No, “global warming” means Earth's average annual air temperature is rising, but not necessarily in every single location during all seasons across the globe.  It’s like your grades. If one semester you get all Bs and Cs, and the next you get all As and Cs, your grade point average rises, even though you didn’t improve in every class.

    That’s the way it is with Earth’s near-surface temperature as atmospheric greenhouse gas levels climb. Temperature trends across the entire globe aren’t uniform because of the diverse geography on our planet—oceans versus continents, lowlands versus mountains, forests versus deserts versus ice sheets—as well as natural climate variability. When you’re zoomed in on a particular place, you may not be able to see the overall trend.

    It is only when scientists calculate the average of temperature changes from every place on Earth over the course of a year to produce a single number, and then look at how that number has changed over time that a very clear, global warming trend emerges. In other words, it’s only when we “zoom out” to the planet-wide scale that the trend is obvious: despite a few, rare areas experiencing an overall cooling trend, the vast majority of places across the globe are warming
    ."

    Not uniform

  13. Sunburst, you seem to be the one stuck with not understanding the very words you yourself use to argue.

    You have pointed to several regions where cold events have happened recently (weather) but failed to produce data that would show that there is a long term cooling trend in these locations. In post 8 above, MA Rodger did not mention gobal averages at all but instead linked data that clearly show an upward trend for the 2 locations you mentioned with enough precision that they could be checked.

    So, not only these locations fail to show "a downward trend equally strong as the upward trend in other regions," they actually show an upward trend, consistent with the global trend. How did you get the impression that these locations were experiencing a long term cooling trend?

    Repeating stuff does not make it become real. If you want to be taken seriously, you must now produce local data that shows a long term cooling trend of approximately 0.18 deg C per decade. Considering how your original argument went, you should produce a great quantity of them too.

    You must also show data showing a decreasing growing season. That will likely not be in the 48 contiguous US, where the length of the growing season has gone up steadily. I'll add that, if you want to go into the growing season argument, in order to keep it honest you must steer away from research showing that the overall warming could cause a decrease in the number of days suitable for plant growth due to soil moisture and other factors adversely affected by rising temperatures.

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  14. Philippe Chantreau @ 13

    Well, you are free to believe whatever you want.  But I'm sure that most Americans who have seen skyrocketing heating bills and frozen water mains for the past 5-10 winters would tend to say it's a cooling trend and not just cold weather.  At any rate, it would simply be wrong to deprive those people (including myself) of the fuels they need in order to get them through the winter seasons despite all of the "global warming" we are experiencing.  

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  15. nigeli @ 7

    I sympathise with the challenges people face, but these comments about what they can afford are just empty assertions. On what basis with what facts? What expert study says this? Even if they had difficulties affording this you can have carbon tax and dividend schemes which are financially gentle on people (google it).

    Don't trouble me with "expert studies".  These studies say only what the paymasters want them to say.  First try living in one of those cooling regions I describe and see what it's like to try to make ends meet on reduced crops and whatever government assistance they can get.  And the more government handout we have, the more inflation we get.  Either way we are stuck with less, and things are bad enough even under the present circumstances.

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    Moderator Response:

    [DB] Sloganeering snipped.

    Please note that posting comments here at SkS is a privilege, not a right.  This privilege can and will be rescinded if the posting individual continues to treat adherence to the Comments Policy as optional, rather than the mandatory condition of participating in this online forum.

    Moderating this site is a tiresome chore, particularly when commentators repeatedly submit offensive or off-topic posts or just make things up. We really appreciate people's cooperation in abiding by the Comments Policy, which is largely responsible for the quality of this site.
     
    Finally, please understand that moderation policies are not open for discussion.  If you find yourself incapable of abiding by these common set of rules that everyone else observes, then a change of venues is in the offing.

    Please take the time to review the policy and ensure future comments are in full compliance with it.  Thanks for your understanding and compliance in this matter.

  16. SunBurst @12...

    The term "global warming" refers to the rise in global mean temperature. There is nothing dictating that every single point on the planet must be warming for it to be global warming. 

    You also failed to address the point that your original statement said the cooling was "equally as strong" as the warming, when it clearly in fact is not.

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  17. Sunburst @12

    "You must, however, consider the Big Picture in that "global warming" really isn't global unless the upward temperature trends are happening everywhere, and I have pointed out several regions where exactly the opposite is happening."

    No. The world doesn't have to be warming at every place for the world to be warming as a whole. All that has to happen is the planets average temperature goes up. This is self evidently possible even if some small areas are cooling. By analogy a simple traditional wood fire could be getting hotter and hotter measured with temperatures in the chimney even if you spilt your iced drink on a small part of the fire causing one corner of the fire to cool for a little bit. I've already explained all this @7 and you havent disproven it with any data. You have pointed out a couple of regions where you allege without hard evidence theres cooling but you neglect the many more regions that show warming. You provide no proof that areas of your alleged cooling are greater than areas of warming. And as people point out you confuse a warming trend with weather so you havent demonstrated any actual cooling trend anywhere at all on the planet.

    ---------------------------------

    Sunburst @13

    "Well, you are free to believe whatever you want. But I'm sure that most Americans who have seen skyrocketing heating bills and frozen water mains for the past 5-10 winters would tend to say it's a cooling trend and not just cold weather. "

    Or is it because electric companies are simply charging more money for other reasons? Maybe they are building new infrastructure. Maybe they are getting greedy. Maybe there is maineinance work. Again you provide no reliable evidence of why prices are skyrocketing or even "if" they are sky rocketing.

    And 10 years does not constitute a climate change trend. Its generally accepted we need 30 years of data to be certain the climate has changed in a fundamental way and its not just short term natural cyclical variability. This is why it was only decided in about the 2000s that burning fossil fuels was definitely causing climate change. So even if the global  climate WAS cooling for 5 -10 years (it isn't) this doesnt prove very much.

    " At any rate, it would simply be wrong to deprive those people (including myself) of the fuels they need in order to get them through the winter seasons despite all of the "global warming" we are experiencing."

    Strawman. Nobody is depriving anyone of fuel.

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  18. John Seers @9

    However I would like SunBurst to list one prediction by Al Gore that "failed" because I do not think SunBurst will be able to list one.

    All right.  How about the prediction he made in 2006 that New York City would be flooded within ten years due to sea level rise from the melting of the Arctic ice cap.  Well, the year 2016 has come and gone but NYC is still on dry land.

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  19. nigelj @17

    And 10 years does not constitute a climate change trend. Its generally accepted we need 30 years of data to be certain the climate has changed in a fundamental way and its not just short term natural cyclical variability.

    Then howcome the threat was global cooling from the early 1940s up to about 1975, and then changed to global warming in by the middle 1980s?

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  20. Question:  Assuming you all are 100 percent correct in the temperature trends you are stating,  does any of your "New Research" turned up a plausible explanation as to how we know that human carbon dioxide emissions are the cause?  Remember that CO2 accounts for only about 20% of the total greenhouse effect, and less that 10% of that is caused by humans.

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  21. Sunburst @ 18: "...he made in 2006 that New York City would be flooded within ten years..."

    He didn't. Unless you can provide a reliable reference of where he did.

    https://skepticalscience.com/al-gore-inconvenient-truth-errors.htm

    Sunburst @ 19 "...then changed to global warming in by the middle 1980s"

    It didn't.

    https://skepticalscience.com/ice-age-predictions-in-1970s.htm

    Unless you are just looking at observed temperatures and trying claim that nothing byut CO2 is affecting temperature trends. In that case, you are applying the phrase "global warming" to two different phenomena. The early 20th century rise, the mid-20th century cooling, and the current rapid warming since the 1980s are not caused by the same thing.

    https://skepticalscience.com/global-cooling-mid-20th-century.htm

    You need to find some better sources of information.

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  22. Sunburst @ 20

    "CO2 accounts for only about 20% of the total greenhouse effect"

    Wrong.

    https://skepticalscience.com/co2-warming-35-percent.htm

    "...less that 10% of that is caused by humans."

    Wrong.

    https://skepticalscience.com/human-co2-smaller-than-natural-emissions.htm

    You really need to come up with something that is not a long-debunked talking point.

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  23. SunBurst @20... "...does any of your 'New Research' turned up a plausible explanation as to how we know that human carbon dioxide emissions are the cause?"

    That doesn't really require new research since the old research has demonstrated that more than sufficiently. Just look at the change in radiative forcing for CO2 over the past century. 

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  24. SunBurst @20,

    When you ask about "New Research" (a term used in these SkS pages to denote research new this week), I asume you are simply trying to coin a perjorative term to troll onto this thread. So I assume you are actually asking about all what Rob Honeycutt @23 terms the "old research" which has been rattling round for yeras if not decades. Note this week's 'new research' is fresh-off-the-boat and needs a bit of time to be checked out, a checking process achieved with 'old research'.

    You take a giant leap in conceding at least that there is reason to consider the possibility that you are entirely wrong about temperature trends. Well done you!!

    However, I struggle to see the connection between, on the one hand, the contribution of CO2 to the "total greenhouse effect" and the percentage change wrought by AGW on that  "total greenhouse effect" which you ask respondents to "remember", and on the other hand, attribution of the causes of the global warming you now see as worth assuming?

    The"total greenhouse effect" contributes roughly +33ºC to planetary temperature and, while assessments of the direct mechanism of the GH-effect (eg Schmidt et al (2010) - note the date = 'old research') shows CO2 contributing 20% to "total greenhouse effect" , note also that CO2 is an esential requirement for the other main contributor to the GH-effect H2O making CO2 the principle control knob governing Earth's temperature (Lacis et al 2010 - note the date ='old research').

    The actual question you ask is addressed by Bob Loblaw @22 but note that assessing the contribution of CO2 to AGW is not straightforward as the various gases have differing residence times and CO2 is particularly long-lived. But perhaps contributions cab be best simplistically measured using the NOAA AGGI which shows CO2 alone contributing a little under 60% of today's AGW (positive) forcing. Do note that all the other contributions are like CO2 anthropogenic in origin.

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  25. Bob Loblaw @21

    Al Gore showed scenes in his movie An Inconvenient Truth that depicted a bunch of cities, including NYC, underwater from the melting Arctic ice caps.  He later backpedaled in this point in his sequel.  In his new movie, he depicts Hurricane Sandy as the causing NYC flooding, including the flooding of the WTC Memorial which was then under construction.  By changing the cause of NYC flooding from rising sea-level to a storm (brought on by AGW, of course), recovers some of his credibility.

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  26. SunBurst... It's clearly stated in the movie what's being demonstrated is what would happen if all the ice on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets melted. An ice-free planet, which we had the last time CO2 levels were as high as today, would have sea levels that are 70 meters higher than today. These are facts.

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  27. Rob Honeycutt @26

    When have we had CO2 levels as high as they are today?  The story I keep hearing from the AGW folks is that current CO2 levels are unprecidented.   

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  28. SunBUrst @ 25.

    What Rob said @ 26. I guessed that you would probably try to claim that your statement of a "prediction he made in 2006 that New York City would be flooded within ten years due to sea level rise from the melting of the Arctic ice cap." was from the movie.

    So, your score on this issue is (so far):

    • You got the year of the movie right (2006),
    • Gore said nothing about "within 10 years",
    • It was not about melting "the Arctic ice cap".

    Pretty pathetic, really. The only thing right is pretty trivial. On any item of substance, you got it badly wrong.

    Where are you getting  this crap? You really need to find yourself some better sources of information. There is lots here at this site if you take the time to look.

    ...but at comment #27, you are just running off on a different quest. To avoid admitting your error, you are trying to distract everyone. It won't work - we've seen all this sort of behaviour time after time after time.

    If you actually have something accurate and new to contribute, please do so.

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  29. SunBurst @27.... Oh, come on! Surely you're not that uninformed on this issue. Are you?

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  30. Rob Honeycutt @29,

    Let's assume he is ignorant and isn't just playing with his troll-head on.

    SunBurst @27,

    CO2 levels were momentarily (thus for a 100k years perhaps) approaching today's levels back 3 million years ago. This was a time when the Panama Isthmus had just formed between N & S America, an event that would make a big impact on global climate. The levels of CO2 we see today were have not been seen for 13 million years and prior to that on scales of 100s of millions of years, CO2 was multiple-times higher than today although estimates of how many multiples are not well defined.

    But do bear in mind that the sun has been getting warmer with time. Roughly this equates to a forcing equal to a doubling of CO2 every 150 million years. So to balance a weaker sun back 450 million years ago, CO2 would have to be perhaps at 2,000ppm, 8-times higher than pre-industrial.

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  31. SunBurst would likely benefit from reading Royer et al 2004.

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  32. Rob Honeycutt @29

    All right, Smarty!  Then answer my question from @27.  Keep in mind, however, the quote from https://skepticalscience.com/human-co2-smaller-than-natural-emissions.htm

    ... atmospheric CO2 is at its highest level in 15 to 20 million years (Tripati 2009).

    Let's see how well informed you are!

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  33. Bob Loblaw @22

    Your claim involving https://skepticalscience.com/co2-warming-35-percent.htm is a strawman since I never claimed that the Climate Myth in this link was true.  I thought it was already known that about 20% of the greenhouse effect was due to CO2 while the remaining 80% was due primarily to water vapor.

    In the other link https://skepticalscience.com/human-co2-smaller-than-natural-emissions.htm , some bold assertions are made without any error bars either on the data or the conclusions.  Since the human released amounts of CO2 and other GHGs are so much smaller than the naturally released amounts of these gases, it is highly likely that the amount of human released gases would fit within the uncertainty of the naturally released gases.  In other words, one could not distinguish between the human released gases and uncertainties in the naturally released gases.  In this case, you haven't debunked anything.

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  34. SunBurst... Your question, I'm assuming, is, "When have we had CO2 levels as high as they are today?"

    But that question was followed with the comment saying, "The story I keep hearing from the AGW folks is that current CO2 levels are unprecidented."

    So... as MA Rogers just pointed out, the last time we've had CO2 levels this high was >3 mya. No one has ever claimed that current CO2 levels are unprecedented in all of earth's history. Current levels are unprecedented, certainly during the holocene, certainly during the past million years of glacial-interglacial cycles. 

    If you bother to read Dr Tripati's paper you mention you'd see the abstract states:

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) content of the atmosphere has varied cyclically between ~180 and ~280 parts per million by volume over the past 800,000 years, closely coupled with temperature and sea level. For earlier periods in Earth’s history, the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is much less certain, and the relation between pCO2 and climate remains poorly constrained. We use boron/calcium ratios in foraminifera to estimate pCO2 during major climate transitions of the past 20 million years. During the Middle Miocene, when temperatures were ~3° to 6°C warmer and sea level was 25 to 40 meters higher than at present, pCO2 appears to have been similar to modern levels. Decreases in pCO2 were apparently synchronous with major episodes of glacial expansion during the Middle Miocene (~14 to 10 million years ago) and Late Pliocene (~3.3 to 2.4 million years ago).

    This is consistent with what everyone exchanging comments with you right now has been stating, as well as being consistent with Al Gore's movie.

    My suggestion is that you read both the Tripati paper and the Royer paper I previously posted. Then we can at least start to have a reasonably informed conversation about these issues.

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  35. MA Rodger @24

    Given a fair chance, I believe I can clear up most of your concerns about my claims, and maybe even a few things you never quite understood. It would, however, take an open mind on your part and recognize the possibility that not all of the cardinal laws of modern "climate science" are consistent with fundament laws of phyics. Probably the most far-reaching inconsistency between fundamental physics and climate science is the assumption of an earth in perfect thermal equilibrium. Now you and I both know that can't possibly be true or all of your temperature data would show a uniform temperature over the entire surface. Also, relative humidity would be 100 percent everywhere. This is the basis, however, for arguing the CO2 "control knob" theory. As you may recall, this theory relies primarily on the Clausius-Claperyon equation which assumes a uniform temperature over the entire condensed state/vapor state sample. Since the entire earth is our "sample" in this case, CO2 cannot in general be the controlling GHG unless we have a uniform temperature earth.

    Despite what seems to be total absurdity in this "control knob" theory, however, it is the reason why climate science does not allow dismissal of the CO2 greenhouse effect as small compared with that of H2O.  It is also the basis for lingo such as forcings, feedbacks, fast and slow feedbacks, and the somewhat comical iceball earth scenarios.  It seems to me that modern climate science has gotten into a mode of thinking that needs correction!

    At this point, I have probably discussed these issues as much as I dare.  In fact, I expect these comments will be taken down within 12 hours of when I post them.  Your AGW comrades and moderators don't like to hear this kind of news about their pet theories.  I've been through this many times before!

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  36. SunBurst... "Probably the most far-reaching inconsistency between fundamental physics and climate science is the assumption of an earth in perfect thermal equilibrium."

    Essentially, your entire understanding of climate science is based on a strawman argument. If you can't be bothered to try to understand the basics of climate science you will necessarily be ignorant of it.

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  37. Yes, Sunburst @35 and prior ~ you have indeed been "through this many times before."

    And each time you return to it, you have a different user-name.

    But despite your many visits to SkS site over the years, you appear unable to learn anything ~ even though large amounts of genuine information is provided to you.

    The real world seems too difficult for you.

    0 0
  38. Rob Honeycutt @36

    This is no "strawman" argument.  It is exactly how it is stated in Lacis et. al. 2010.  And I understand the basics of climate science all too well, well enough to recognize its clash with other more legitimate sciences.

    0 0
  39. Eclectic @37

    What "large amounts of genuine information"?  If you can't legitimately argue the most basic concept supporting all of your claims, you don't have anything!

    0 0
  40. SunBurst @35,
    So let me get straight what you are saying.
    I require an "open mind" to be able to "recognise the possibility" of a big big boo-boo in climatology. Okay. I can run with that all day long.
    And "the most far reaching" boo-boo (so you suggest there is more than one) is an assumed "earth in perfect thermal equilibrium" which you define as one with "a uniform temerature over "the entire surface."  Now I struggle with this.  An "earth in perfect thermal equilibrium" surely has to be energy flows to the poles which surely means temperature gradients. And the same with this "relative humidity would be 100% everywhere."  Why would that be? But, hey, this is your 'possibility recognition' class, not mine. So I'll let it ride for the while.

    Then you ask me to "recall" that the "primary" assumption of AGW is Clausius-Claperyon which you say requires this "uniform temperature" over "the entire earth" for it to be valid. Now that will require some further explanation from you. Clausius-Claperyon simply shows a linear relationship between temperature and specific humidity at a constant pressure at the dew-point. I see no "uniform temperature" over "the entire earth" or even an "entire condensed state/vapor state sample" (whtever that is supposed to be).

    And @38 you protest that "It is exactly how it is stated in Lacis et. al. (2010)." Of course, it would be proper to quote what Lacis et al actually say rather than just say they say it is "exactly how." So what do Lacis et al say? They mention Clausius-Claperyon just the once saying:-

    "If the global atmospheric temperatures were to fall to as low as TS =TE [ie the surface cools from 288K to 255k], the Clausius-Clapeyron relation would imply that the sustainable amount of atmospheric water vapor would become less than 10% of the current atmospheric value."

    But this use of Clausius-Clapeyron is not the substance of the Lacis et al findings. That is derived from a full-blown climate model. This quote is simply explaining the finding in more simplistic terms.

    So this in no way supports your contention that "It is exactly how it is stated in Lacis et. al. 2010."

    SunBurst, I am always open to ideas but you do seem to have failed to present anything valid @35 or @38. Maybe you have forgotten to explain some vital link in your argument? Or maybe you are a simple fool repeating the nonsense echoing round the denialosphere? I would suggest it is more likely the latter as you give no indication of the former. But don't feel so bad about it. You are not the first fool to gush out this same cretious nonsense here at SkS.

    0 0
  41. Now Sunburst has gone full delirium mode. Another rant that falls in the "not even wrong" category.

    Considering how confident Sunburst is that everyone has it fundamentally wrong, he is bound to produce something monumental in the science litterature soon. I'll keep an "open mind" and will read whatever that will be once it has been peer-reviewed and published. Until then, I won't waste my time. I recommend DNFTT.

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  42. SunBurst @38... Being the word "equibrium" doesn't occur in the Lacis paper, perhaps you could better describe what you're trying to claim. To my understanding no one states a requirement the "assumption of an earth in perfect thermal equilibrium." In fact, all warming and cooling is going to be a function of a radiative imbalance.

    0 0
  43. What's fascinating to watch is how SunBurst has presented erroneous statements, been corrected with evidence and citations, and ignored it. It's clear he just flat out doesn't care when he gets something wrong.

    @4, 6, 12 he said (without citation) warming isn't global, and shown he's wrong multiple times and in multiple ways.

    @14 he claims (without citation) we're taking energy away from people who need it, and shown how this is wrong.

    @18 he claims (without citation) that Al Gore said NYC would be under water in 10 years, and he was repeatedly shown this is wrong.

    @20 he questions how we could know that human CO2 emissions are causing warming, and is shown the research and evidence, and ignores it.

    @27 he asserts that "AGW folks" claim (without citation) that CO2 levels are "unprecedented," is shown the research and ignores the error of his assertion.

    @35 he makes the false assertion (without citation) that Lacis 2010 claims the earth must be in perfect equilibrium, and will surely be back to defend his false statement.

    If this isn't Gish Gallop then I don't know what is.

    0 0
  44. MA Rodger @40

    An "earth in perfect thermal equilibrium" surely has to be energy flows to the poles which surely means temperature gradients.

    Wrong!  An object or sample in thermal equilibrium has no temperature gradients.  If it did, heat would be flowing from the regions of higher temperatures to those of lower temperature, which would not be thermal equilibrium.  In the Clausius-Claperyon equation, the temperature of the sample is characterized by a single value, not a bunch of values.  Check it out for yourself by doing a search on "Clausius-Clapeyron equation derivation".  I believe you will find that the first statement made is that the sample consists of a substance in which two phases of that substance are in thermal equilibrium with each other.  So, if we apply the CC equation to a single temperature earth, we are automatically assuming that this earth is in thermal equilibrium with itself everywhere, period.

    So don't ask me anymore for credible evidence of my claim that the CO2 "control knob" theory is false.  You have a mountain of it already.  Every temperature dataset you have that shows a non-uniform temperature over the surface of the earth is further evidence.

    0 0
    Moderator Response:

    [PS] Apologies for delay, but comment will released after an investigation for sock-puppetry is complete.

    [DB] Sock puppet confirmed.

  45. All this denialist nonsense that keeps emerging about Clausius-Claperyon remains a curious phenomenon. Clausius-Claperyon simply says the dew point water content for constant pressure (pressure is significantly fixed within the atmosphere) is linearly dependent on temperature. The only shred of reason i can see for this denialist nonsense about something being 'uniform' would thus concern, not an assumption of 'iniform' global temperature, but either an assumption of atmospheric relative humidity remaining unchanged with temperature or an assumption of a 'uniform' average global temperature change, both of which are not assumed but modelled within GCMs and both of which (as Lacis et al use of GCMs demonstrates) are reasonably valid assumptions for an approximate assessment.

    If there were a denialist out there with just half a brain, they may be able to explain it all properly. In the meantime I can but assume all this denialist Clausius-Claperyon nonsense is the result of swivel-eyed denialists thinking they have found something cunningly complex and thus an irrefutable argument, oblivious to the matter actually being remarkably straightforward. 

    0 0
    Moderator Response:

    [PS] Pretty much all CC nonsense comes just one denialist that creates a lot a sock-puppets. He is convinced of his superiority (and his license to ignore comments policy). Just not worth the time as ignores any contrary evidence or interprets it as supporting his nonsense.

  46.  

    Looks like SunBurst has been outed as a sockpuppet. Quelle surprise. 

    Someone else has pointed out his example of an Al Gore prediction (of New York flooding) does not hold up. I would just add that I notice he fails to provide a reference to the actual prediction and the actual words Al Gore used, which is an all too common problem in his echo chamber. All the better to misrepresent what was said. 

    I will add one point in refutation. Al Gore made this unreferenced prediction in 2006 according to SunBurst. New York was badly flooded in 2012. That seems pretty convincing to me. 

    I am aware that the science doubters argue until they are blue in the face that this does not count "'Cos it was caused by a hurricane.".  Just a sign of their desperation to cling to their failing zombie tropes.

     

     

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  47. JohnSeers @46, the gentleman in question does indeed keep returning, like Halley's Comet ~ but at intervals closer to 7.5 months rather than 75 years. Though unlike Halley's Comet, he gains a new name at every cycle.

    And it's always the same nonsense arguments, and the same imperviousness to rational thinking.  Idee fixe  is the French term, I believe.   Perhaps you can advise on the translation of two short planks.

    Al Gore did come out with the statement: "If Greenland broke up and melted, or if half of Greenland and half of West Antarctica ..."  <unquote>  but the reference was to the substantial inundation of Florida.  And he specified no time scale.  Presumably somewhere he made similar reference to the flooding of New York.   In addition, Al Gore is definitely not a scientist, and cannot be specified as an authentic spokesman for modern climate science & its "predictions".   (Not that the denialists care about such distinctions.)

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  48. John, 

    We coud add that said Hurricane was a monster 1800km in diameter at its largest, that made it all the way to 40 degrees latitude. Of course, you can blame NY flooding on the storm surge, but there the sea level and storm surge combo is what takes the cake. Deniers will deny.

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  49. It does make sense to claim that the Earth as a whole usually is very close to thermal equilibrium if that refers to its energy imbalance with space on a century to millennium time scale or more. If that number wasn't very close to zero most of the time, the Earth would almost constantly experience huge changes of its average temperature, ice cover, sea level and so on.
    An energy imbalance of, say, +0.1 watts/m2 sounds very small compared to the ~240 watts/m2 flowing in and out of the climate system, but what if that imbalance was maintained over a period of 10,000 years?
    If so, the Earth would accumulate a total of 1.6 x 1025 Joules of energy. That amount of energy could:


    1. Heat all the water in the oceans by 3°C on average, or the upper 350-400 metres by 30°C
    2. Melt all the Earth's roughly 28 million gigatonnes of ice 1.5 times
    3. Heat the entire atmosphere by 3000°C (yes, three thousand degrees C)
    (3 is of course highly "unphysical", but it illustrates the huge amount of heat involved)

    This suggests that the Earth's average energy imbalance from the last glacial maximum to the early Holocene optimum was of the order 0.1-0.2 watts/m2 and that it through most of the Earth's history must have been much less than that.

    And the present imbalance?
    If the heat increase of the oceans' upper 2000 metres during the last decade is used as an indicator, the current imbalance is about +0.7 watts/m2, probably about +0.8 watts/m2 if other parts of the climate system are included.
    So, yes, it definitely makes sense to assume that the Earth usually is very close to thermal equilibrium on a century to millennium time scale or more.

    0 0
  50. SunBurst0 @50,

    Rather that having "cleared away any notions that [SunBurst] was simply making stuff up" you rather confirm it by your comment @50. The effort you appear to have taken in composing the comment may suggest it was not done "simply," but the result is pure make-believe. (Note that the notion of what you describe as a "temperature forcing" sounds a lot like a climate feedback.)

    0 0
    Moderator Response:

    [TD] Sunburst again has been banned for yet another sock puppetry.

    [DB] As will all subsequent and future sock puppet iterations of the same account.

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