Climate Science Glossary

Term Lookup

Enter a term in the search box to find its definition.


Use the controls in the far right panel to increase or decrease the number of terms automatically displayed (or to completely turn that feature off).

Term Lookup


All IPCC definitions taken from Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Annex I, Glossary, pp. 941-954. Cambridge University Press.

Home Arguments Software Resources Comments The Consensus Project Translations About Support

Bluesky Facebook LinkedIn Mastodon MeWe

Twitter YouTube RSS Posts RSS Comments Email Subscribe

Climate's changed before
It's the sun
It's not bad
There is no consensus
It's cooling
Models are unreliable
Temp record is unreliable
Animals and plants can adapt
It hasn't warmed since 1998
Antarctica is gaining ice
View All Arguments...

New? Register here
Forgot your password?

Latest Posts


Skeptical Science New Research for Week #33 2022

Posted on 18 August 2022 by Doug Bostrom, Marc Kodack

Cornucopia of 100% renewable energy research

We're in a period of accelerating deployment of renewable energy sources. If we think of progress as a curve, the upward-and-right-trending line of that curve is changing slope very rapidly in a good way. How did we get here? Not very easily; a steady, dogged slog lasting some 50 years and counting is what it's taken to change the various functions driving our graph of "better."

100% renewable energy research is conducted with the goal of demonstrating and ultimately implementing energy capture and control involving no one-way, one-time conversions. For folks using their imaginations to make sure we're not borrowing from the future with no plan for payback (stealing, in other words), 100% renewable isn't a eco-hugging warm and fuzzy option, not a choice at all. Engineering for the long term requires 100% renewable energy. For anybody thinking about how their descendants might be living in 200 years or so, actual renewable energy is a mandatory part of future furnishings. Our species is after all on a very long trip.

As we can see from our feature article On the History and Future of 100% Renewable Energy Systems Research, 100% renewable energy is not only a matter of figuring out how arrange machinery so as to obtain sometthing for nothing. In a way, the hardware of this technology is the easy part. It's acceptance and integration that is perhaps the hardest challenge. In this magnum opus review from IEEE Access, a soup-nuts team of physicsts, systems researchers and energy economists cast a wide and deep net to capture a really useful snapshot of how this field has inched and lately bolted forward. Deployment is a lot about context.

The reader can walk away from this paper with a coherent picture of where we stand now, how we arrived, and how we're likely to continue. As with all review papers, in citations there's a easy map showing foothold for obtaining further information. Not least, the article also is helpful in the "discourses of delay" and "solutions denial" arenas. There are a lot of answers to misconceptions here, almost in a Rolodex format.

The authors conclude with some observations on where more work might best be concentrated. 

Other notables:

Climate change contributions to future atmospheric river flood damages in the western United States. This news was much-mentioned over the past week, as often as not without direct access to the primary source.  Here it is, and it's open access. 

What do we know about the employment impacts of climate policies? A review of the ex post literature. The authors find neutral to slighly positive effects of extant climate policies. There is room for improvement to avoid unthinkingly leaving islands of want as a side-effect of policy. 

Chronically underestimated: A reassessment of US heat waves using the extended heat index. As a relatively naive extrapolation, the "heat index" we're familiar with doesn't deal well with a combination of extreme high temperature and humidity. These combinations are becoming more frequent and will continue to do so. Analysis of the method reveals serious underestimation during coincident extremes, with potentially dangerous health effects. The authors propose improvements. 

Hybrid Power Plants. Status of Operating and Proposed Plants, 2022 Edition. From our government/NGO section, a report on what appears to be an increasingly prevalent technique of renewable energy deployment: generation and storage as a integration. It seems obvious in hindsight but there are reasons why this has been an incremental affair.

All of the above open access and free to read. 


"Open access" (OA) articles sometimes are not availble directly from journals. Formerly only an indicator, where they appear the green "Open access" flags in our listing now lead to what the Unpaywall API identifies as "best open access source"  for respective articles. This may or may not be different from both the article title link and (if available) PDF link. As always, automatic identification of OA is not always reliable; iif you're extra intrigued by an article and no OA  flag is showing, it doesnt' hurt to click the title anyway.

147 articles in 59 journals by 944 contributing authors

Physical science of climate change, effects

Extratropical Climate Change During Periods Before and After an Arctic Ice-Free Summer
Xie et al., Earth's Future, Open Access 10.1029/2022ef002881

Forcing for multidecadal surface solar radiation trends over Northern Hemisphere continents
Augustine & Capotondi, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 10.1029/2021jd036342

Future precipitation changes in three key sub-regions of East Asia: the roles of thermodynamics and dynamics
Li et al., Climate Dynamics, Open Access pdf 10.1007/s00382-021-06043-w

Relations of Enhanced High-latitude Concurrent Blockings with Recent Warm Arctic–Cold Continent Patterns
Zhao et al., Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 10.1029/2021jd036117

Observations of climate change, effects

A Transition Towards an Unusually Wet Condition Will Not Alleviate Water Scarcity Risk in Xinjiang, China
Feng et al., AGU Advances, 10.1029/2021av000589

Arctic Climate Feedbacks in ERA5 Reanalysis: Seasonal and Spatial Variations and the Impact of Sea-ice Loss
Jenkins & Dai, Geophysical Research Letters, 10.1029/2022gl099263

Carbon isotopic constraints on basin-scale vertical and lateral particulate organic carbon dynamics in the northern South China Sea
Zhang et al., Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 10.1029/2022jc018830

Changes in Arctic Halocline Waters along the East Siberian Slope and in the Makarov Basin from 2007 to 2020
Bertosio et al., Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Open Access pdf 10.1029/2021jc018082

Changes in rainfall rates and increased number of extreme rainfall events in Rio de Janeiro city
Regueira & Wanderley, Natural Hazards, 10.1007/s11069-022-05545-y

Changes in the global mean air temperature over land since 1980
Nita et al., Atmospheric Research, Open Access 10.1016/j.atmosres.2022.106392

Contemporary climate change velocity for near-surface temperatures over India
Sachan et al., Climatic Change, 10.1007/s10584-022-03418-8

Earlier onset of North Atlantic hurricane season with warming oceans
Truchelut et al., Nature Communications, Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41467-022-31821-3

Historical changes and projected trends of extreme climate events in Xinjiang, China
Guan et al., Climate Dynamics, 10.1007/s00382-021-06067-2

Hotspot and trend analysis of forest fires and its relation to climatic factors in the western Himalayas
Kumar & Kumar, Natural Hazards, 10.1007/s11069-022-05530-5

Increasing trends in oceanic surface poleward eddy heat flux observed over the past three decades
Guo et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 10.1029/2022gl099362

Insured Corn Losses in the United States from Weather and Climate Perils
Bundy et al., Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Open Access pdf 10.1175/jamc-d-21-0245.1

Interdecadal change in the influence of El Niño in the developing stage on the central China summer precipitation
Chen et al., Climate Dynamics, 10.1007/s00382-021-06036-9

Recent droughts in the United States are among the fastest-developing of the last seven decades
Iglesias et al., Weather and Climate Extremes, Open Access 10.1016/j.wace.2022.100491

Significantly increased lightning activity over the Tibetan Plateau and its relation to thunderstorm genesis
Qie et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 10.1029/2022gl099894

The Arctic has warmed nearly four times faster than the globe since 1979
Rantanen et al., Communications Earth & Environment, Open Access pdf 10.1038/s43247-022-00498-3

Tree-ring oxygen isotopes record a decrease in Amazon dry season rainfall over the past 40 years
Cintra et al., Climate Dynamics, Open Access pdf 10.1007/s00382-021-06046-7

Instrumentation & observational methods of climate change, effects

A long-term global XCO2 dataset: Ensemble of satellite products
Jin et al., Atmospheric Research, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2022.106385

On the potentials and limitations of attributing a small-scale climate event
Matte et al., Geophysical Research Letters, Open Access 10.1029/2022gl099481

Modeling, simulation & projection of climate change, effects

Effect of Interdecadal Variation in Southern Indian Ocean SST on the Relationship Between ENSO and Summer Precipitation in the Asian-Pacific Monsoon Region
Gao et al., Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 10.1029/2021jd036151

Future characteristics of extreme precipitation indicate the dominance of frequency over intensity: A multi-model assessment from CMIP6 across India
Sarkar & Maity, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 10.1029/2021jd035539

Future trends of arctic surface wind speeds and their relationship with sea ice in CMIP5 climate model simulations
Vavrus & Alkama Alkama, Climate Dynamics, Open Access pdf 10.1007/s00382-021-06071-6

Historical changes and projected trends of extreme climate events in Xinjiang, China
Guan et al., Climate Dynamics, 10.1007/s00382-021-06067-2

Impact of warmer sea surface temperature on the global pattern of intense convection: INSIGHTS FROM A GLOBAL STORM RESOLVING MODEL
Cheng et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 10.1029/2022gl099796

Increasing wave energy moves Arctic continental shelves toward a new future
Malito et al., Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 10.1029/2021jc018374

Long-term changes of cross-shelf transports in the Yellow and East China Seas under different greenhouse gases emission scenarios
Hao et al., Climate Dynamics, 10.1007/s00382-021-06045-8

Multi-century dynamics of the climate and carbon cycle under both high and net negative emissions scenarios
Koven et al., Earth System Dynamics, Open Access pdf 10.5194/esd-13-885-2022

Projected Changes and Time of Emergence of Temperature Extremes over Australia in CMIP5 and CMIP6
Deng & Perkins-Kirkpatrick Perkins-Kirkpatrick Perkins?Kirkpatrick, [journal not provided], Open Access 10.1002/essoar.10510001.1

Projected changes of surface winds over the Antarctic continental margin
Neme et al., [journal not provided], 10.1002/essoar.10510952.1

The Future Climate and Air Quality Response from different Near-Term Climate Forcer, Climate and Land-use Scenarios using UKESM1
Turnock et al., Earth's Future, 10.1029/2022ef002687

The relation between the latitudinal shifts of midlatitude diabatic heating, eddy heat flux and the eddy-driven jet in CMIP6 models
Lachmy, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 10.1029/2022jd036556

Advancement of climate & climate effects modeling, simulation & projection

How well do the CMIP6 HighResMIP models simulate precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau?
Chen et al., Atmospheric Research, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2022.106393

Neglected spatiotemporal variations of model biases in ensemble-based climate projections
Song et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 10.1029/2022gl098063

Toward Effective Collaborations between Regional Climate Modeling and Impacts-Relevant Modeling Studies in Polar Regions
Lee et al., Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 10.1175/bams-d-22-0102.1

Cryosphere & climate change

Antarctic calving loss rivals ice-shelf thinning
Greene et al., Nature, 10.1038/s41586-022-05037-w

Antarctic Peninsula warming triggers enhanced basal melt rates throughout West Antarctica
Flexas et al., Science Advances, 10.1126/sciadv.abj9134

Arctic Climate Feedbacks in ERA5 Reanalysis: Seasonal and Spatial Variations and the Impact of Sea-ice Loss
Jenkins & Dai, Geophysical Research Letters, 10.1029/2022gl099263

Effects of extreme melt events on ice flow and sea level rise of the Greenland Ice Sheet
Beckmann & Winkelmann Winkelmann, [journal not provided], Open Access pdf 10.5194/tc-2022-145

Ice thickness and morphological analysis reveal the future glacial lake distribution and formation probability in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings
Zhang et al., Global and Planetary Change, Open Access 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103923

Spatial patterns of snow distribution in the sub-Arctic
Bennett et al., The Cryosphere, Open Access pdf 10.5194/tc-16-3269-2022

Sea level & climate change

Effects of extreme melt events on ice flow and sea level rise of the Greenland Ice Sheet
Beckmann & Winkelmann Winkelmann, [journal not provided], Open Access pdf 10.5194/tc-2022-145

The Transient Sea Level response to external forcing in CMIP6 models
Grinsted et al., [journal not provided], Open Access 10.1002/essoar.10510395.1


Latitudinal Variance in the Drivers and Pacing of Warmth During Mid-Pleistocene MIS 31 in the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean
Warnock et al., Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 10.1029/2021pa004394

Roman Warm Period and Late Antique Little Ice Age in an Earth system model large ensemble
Shi et al., Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 10.1029/2021jd035832

Unraveling the Deep-Sea Sedimentary Record of Ice Sheet History
Cowan, Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, Open Access pdf 10.1029/2022pa004488

Variations on a Pathway to an Early Eocene Climate
Henry & Vallis, Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 10.1029/2021pa004375

Volcanism driven Pliensbachian (Lower Jurassic) terrestrial climate and environment perturbations
Zhou et al., Global and Planetary Change, 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2022.103919

Biology & climate change, related geochemistry

Acclimation to water stress improves tolerance to heat and freezing in a common alpine grass
Sumner et al., Oecologia, Open Access pdf 10.1007/s00442-022-05245-1

Accuracy, realism and general applicability of European forest models
Mahnken et al., Global Change Biology, 10.1111/gcb.16384

An analytical framework for determining the ecological risks of wastewater discharges in river networks under climate change
Yang et al., Earth's Future, 10.1029/2021ef002601

Compound marine heatwaves and ocean acidity extremes
Burger et al., Nature Communications, Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41467-022-32120-7

Contrasting effects of altered precipitation regimes on soil nitrogen cycling at the global scale
Wu et al., Global Change Biology, 10.1111/gcb.16392

Cryptogam plant community stability: Warming weakens influences of species richness but enhances effects of evenness
Gu et al., Ecology, 10.1002/ecy.3842

Disorder or a new order: How climate change affects phenological variability
Delinsky et al., International Encyclopedia of Public Health, Open Access 10.1016/b978-0-12-803678-5.00426-4

Dry forest decline is driven by both declining recruitment and increasing mortality in response to warm, dry conditions
Shriver et al., Global Ecology and Biogeography, 10.1111/geb.13582

Effects of climate change on plant resource allocation and herbivore interactions in a Neotropical rainforest shrub
Maynard et al., Ecology and Evolution, 10.1002/ece3.9198

Effects of decadal climate variability on spatiotemporal distribution of Indo-Pacific yellowfin tuna population
Wu et al., Scientific Reports, Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41598-022-17882-w

Even modest climate change may lead to major transitions in boreal forests
Reich et al., Nature, 10.1038/s41586-022-05076-3

Extreme heatwave drives topography-dependent patterns of mortality in a bed-forming intertidal barnacle, with implications for associated community structure
Hesketh & Harley Harley, Global Change Biology, 10.1111/gcb.16390

Geographic range size, water temperature and extrinsic threats predict the extinction risk in global cetaceans
Chen et al., Global Change Biology, 10.1111/gcb.16385

Keeping it cool to take the heat: tropical lizards have greater thermal tolerance in less disturbed habitats
Lopera et al., Oecologia, 10.1007/s00442-022-05235-3

Local adaptation to seasonal cues at the fronts of two parallel, climate-induced butterfly range expansions
Ittonen et al., Ecology Letters, 10.1111/ele.14085

Long-Term Ecological Research on Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change
Hudson et al., BioScience, Open Access pdf 10.1093/biosci/biab134

Molecular responses of a key Antarctic species to sedimentation due to rapid climate change
Ruiz et al., Marine Environmental Research, 10.1016/j.marenvres.2022.105720

Predicting the effects of climate change on deep-water coral distribution around New Zealand – will there be suitable refuges for protection at the end of the 21st Century?
Anderson et al., Global Change Biology, 10.1111/gcb.16389

Projected bioclimatic distributions in Nearctic Bovidae signal the potential for reduced overlap with protected areas
John & Post, Ecology and Evolution, Open Access 10.1002/ece3.9189

Rapid restructuring of the odontocete community in an ocean warming hotspot
Thorne et al., Global Change Biology, 10.1111/gcb.16382

Sufficient conditions for rapid range expansion of a boreal conifer
Dial et al., Nature, Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41586-022-05093-2

Telomeres as a sentinel of population decline in the context of global warming
Lemaître et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 10.1073/pnas.2211349119

The combination of genomic offset and niche modelling provides insights into climate change-driven vulnerability
Chen et al., Nature Communications, Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41467-022-32546-z

Warming does not delay the start of autumnal leaf coloration but slows its progress rate
Jiang et al., Global Ecology and Biogeography, Open Access 10.1111/geb.13581

GHG sources & sinks, flux, related geochemistry

Carbon isotopic constraints on basin-scale vertical and lateral particulate organic carbon dynamics in the northern South China Sea
Zhang et al., Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 10.1029/2022jc018830

Causality guided machine learning model on wetland CH4 emissions across global wetlands
Yuan et al., Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Open Access 10.1016/j.agrformet.2022.109115

Contrasting Sea-Air CO2 Exchanges in the Western Tropical Atlantic Ocean
Monteiro et al., [journal not provided], 10.5194/egusphere-egu22-417

Dissolved methane in the world's largest semi-enclosed estuarine system: The Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada)
Li et al., Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 10.1029/2022jc018850

Gaps in network infrastructure limit our understanding of biogenic methane emissions for the United States
Malone et al., Biogeosciences, Open Access pdf 10.5194/bg-19-2507-2022

Grazing enhances carbon cycling but reduces methane emission during peak growing season in the Siberian Pleistocene Park tundra site
Fischer et al., Biogeosciences, Open Access pdf 10.5194/bg-19-1611-2022

Lowering water table reduces carbon sink strength and carbon stocks in northern peatlands
Kwon et al., Global Change Biology, 10.1111/gcb.16394

Multi-century dynamics of the climate and carbon cycle under both high and net negative emissions scenarios
Koven et al., Earth System Dynamics, Open Access pdf 10.5194/esd-13-885-2022

Peatlands in Southeast Asia: A comprehensive geological review
Omar et al., Earth, Open Access 10.1016/j.earscirev.2022.104149

Process-oriented analysis of dominant sources of uncertainty in the land carbon sink
O’Sullivan et al., Nature Communications, Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41467-022-32416-8

Quantification of greenhouse gas emission from wastewater treatment plants
Delre et al., Science of The Total Environment, Open Access pdf 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.177


A review of examples and opportunities to quantify the grid reliability and resilience impacts of energy efficiency
Carvallo et al., Energy Policy, Open Access 10.1016/j.enpol.2022.113185

Collective wind farm operation based on a predictive model increases utility-scale energy production
Howland et al., [journal not provided], Open Access pdf 10.1002/essoar.10510347.1

Comparing hut-shaped-east-west array for fixed photovoltaic panels against conventional equator facing parallel rows for power output per unit field area
Vineesh & Bhattacharya, Energy for Sustainable Development, 10.1016/j.esd.2022.07.019

Feasibility study of CETO wave energy converter in Iranian coastal areas to meet electrical demands (a case study)
Jahangir & Ghanbari Motlagh, Energy for Sustainable Development, 10.1016/j.esd.2022.07.017

Institutional decarbonization scenarios evaluated against the Paris Agreement 1.5 °C goal
Brecha et al., Nature Communications, Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41467-022-31734-1

Life cycle assessment of regeneration technology routes for sintered NdFeB magnets
Wang et al., The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 10.1007/s11367-022-02081-6

On the History and Future of 100% Renewable Energy Systems Research
Breyer et al., IEEE Access, Open Access pdf 10.1109/access.2022.3193402

Quantifying the life-cycle health impacts of a cobalt-containing lithium-ion battery
Arvidsson et al., The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Open Access pdf 10.1007/s11367-022-02084-3

The economics of deploying distributed solar photovoltaics in developing countries: Some insights from an analysis for Bangladesh
Timilsina, Energy for Sustainable Development, 10.1016/j.esd.2022.07.014

The Global Atlas for Siting Parameters project: Extreme wind, turbulence, and turbine classes
Larsén et al., Wind Energy, Open Access 10.1002/we.2771

Black carbon

Changes in Refractory Black Carbon (rBC) Deposition to Coastal Eastern Antarctica During the Past Century
Li et al., Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10.1029/2021gb007223


Atmospheric radiative and oceanic biological productivity responses to increasing anthropogenic-combustion iron emission in the 1850-2010 period
Rathod et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 10.1029/2022gl099323

Use of machine learning to reduce uncertainties in particle number concentration and aerosol indirect radiative forcing predicted by climate models
Yu et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 10.1029/2022gl098551

Climate change communications & cognition

Lies, Damned Lies, and Social Media Following Extreme Events
Byrd & John, Risk Analysis, 10.1111/risa.13719

Agronomy, animal husbundry, food production & climate change

A pilot study for climate risk assessment in agriculture: a climate-based index for cherry trees
Tudela et al., Natural Hazards, 10.1007/s11069-022-05549-8

Climate change-induced distributional change of medicinal and aromatic plants in the Nepal Himalaya
Shrestha et al., Ecology and Evolution, 10.1002/ece3.9204

Core phylotypes enhance the resistance of soil microbiome to environmental changes to maintain multifunctionality in agricultural ecosystems
Jiao et al., Global Change Biology, 10.1111/gcb.16387

Dietary transition determining the tradeoff between global food security and sustainable development goals varied in regions
Liu et al., Earth's Future, 10.1029/2021ef002354

Downscaling of climate change scenarios for a high-resolution, site-specific assessment of drought stress risk for two viticultural regions with heterogeneous landscapes
Hofmann et al., Earth System Dynamics, Open Access pdf 10.5194/esd-13-911-2022

Effects of climatic and cultivar changes on winter wheat phenology in central Lithuania
A. et al., International Journal of Biometeorology, 10.1007/s00484-022-02336-9

Elevated atmospheric CO2 and warming enhance the acquisition of soil-derived nitrogen rather than urea fertilizer by rice cultivars
Zhang et al., Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 10.1016/j.agrformet.2022.109117

Farmers adapt to climate change irrespective of stated belief in climate change: a California case study
Petersen-Rockney, Climatic Change, Open Access pdf 10.1007/s10584-022-03417-9

Insured Corn Losses in the United States from Weather and Climate Perils
Bundy et al., Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Open Access pdf 10.1175/jamc-d-21-0245.1

Modelling drought vulnerability tracts under changed climate scenario using fuzzy DEMATEL and GIS techniques
Halder et al., Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 10.1007/s00704-022-04165-7

Potential of breadfruit cultivation to contribute to climate-resilient low latitude food systems
Yang et al., [journal not provided], Open Access pdf 10.1101/2021.10.01.462801

Socioeconomic and environmental consequences of a new law for regulating distributed generation in Brazil: A holistic assessment
Costa et al., Energy Policy, 10.1016/j.enpol.2022.113176

Hydrology, hydrometeorology & climate change

Climate change contributions to future atmospheric river flood damages in the western United States
Corringham et al., Scientific Reports, Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41598-022-15474-2

Climate change is increasing the risk of a California megaflood
Huang & Swain, Science Advances, 10.1126/sciadv.abq0995

Climate change threatens terrestrial water storage over the Tibetan Plateau
Li et al., Nature Climate Change, 10.1038/s41558-022-01443-0

Distinguishing Direct Human-driven Effects on the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle
Kåresdotter et al., Earth's Future, 10.1029/2022ef002848

Influence of hillslope flow on hydroclimatic evolution under climate change
Arboleda Obando et al., Earth's Future, Open Access 10.1029/2021ef002613

Meteorological and hydrological drought risks under changing environment on the Wanquan River Basin, Southern China
Li et al., Natural Hazards, 10.1007/s11069-022-05500-x

Twenty-first century drought analysis across China under climate change
Zhang et al., Climate Dynamics, Open Access 10.1007/s00382-021-06064-5

Climate change economics

Capitalizing on the global financial interest in blue carbon
Friess et al., PLOS Climate, Open Access pdf 10.1371/journal.pclm.0000061

Climate justice for small island developing states: identifying appropriate international financing mechanisms for loss and damage
Lai et al., Climate Policy, Open Access pdf 10.1080/14693062.2022.2112017

Climate risks and foreign direct investment in developing countries: the role of national governance
Chen et al., Sustainability Science, Open Access 10.1007/s11625-022-01199-8

What do we know about the employment impacts of climate policies? A review of the ex post literature
Godinho, WIREs Climate Change, Open Access 10.1002/wcc.794

Climate change and the circular economy

Conceptualizing controversies in the EU circular bioeconomy transition
Starke et al., Ambio, Open Access pdf 10.1007/s13280-022-01730-2

Climate change mitigation public policy research

An authenticated and secure accounting system for international emissions trading
Li et al., Climate Policy, Open Access pdf 10.1080/14693062.2022.2107474

Assessing the feasibility of a migration policy from LPG cookers to induction cookers to reduce LPG subsidies
al Irsyad et al., Energy for Sustainable Development, 10.1016/j.esd.2022.08.003

Connectedness mechanisms in the “Carbon-Commodity-Finance” system: Investment and management policy implications for emerging economies
Tian et al., Energy Policy, 10.1016/j.enpol.2022.113195

Efficiency Investment and Curtailment Action
Matsumoto & Sugeta, Environmental and Resource Economics, 10.1007/s10640-022-00709-7

Ensuring sustainable consumption and production pattern in Africa: Evidence from green energy perspectives
Zakari et al., Energy Policy, 10.1016/j.enpol.2022.113183

From regime-building to implementation: Harnessing the UN climate conferences to drive climate action
Obergassel et al., WIREs Climate Change, 10.1002/wcc.797

Global climate as a commons – Decision making on climate change in least developed countries
Havukainen et al., Environmental Science & Policy, Open Access 10.1016/j.envsci.2022.08.003

Green regeneration for more justice? An analysis of the purpose, implementation, and impacts of greening policies from a justice perspective in ?ód? Stare Polesie (Poland) and Leipzig’s inner east (Germany)
Haase et al., Environmental Science & Policy, 10.1016/j.envsci.2022.08.001

Heterogeneity in the Rebound Effect: Evidence from Efficient Lighting Subsidies
Shojaeddini & Gilbert, Environmental and Resource Economics, Open Access pdf 10.1007/s10640-022-00721-x

How energy subsidy reform can drive the Iranian power sector towards a low-carbon future
Aryanpur et al., Energy Policy, Open Access 10.1016/j.enpol.2022.113190

Impacts of regional emission reduction and global climate change on air quality and temperature to attain carbon neutrality in China
Xu et al., Atmospheric Research, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2022.106384

Know your opponent: Which countries might fight the European carbon border adjustment mechanism?
Overland & Sabyrbekov, Energy Policy, Open Access 10.1016/j.enpol.2022.113175

Municipalities as key actors in the heat transition to decarbonise buildings: Experiences from local planning and implementation in a learning context
Herreras Martínez et al., Energy Policy, Open Access 10.1016/j.enpol.2022.113169

The Role of Remaining Carbon Budgets and Net-Zero CO2 Targets in Climate Mitigation Policy
Dickau et al., Current Climate Change Reports, 10.1007/s40641-022-00184-8

What do we know about the employment impacts of climate policies? A review of the ex post literature
Godinho, WIREs Climate Change, Open Access 10.1002/wcc.794

Climate change adaptation & adaptation public policy research

Better understanding of climate catastrophe insurance in China: issues and opportunities, international insights, and directions for development
Kong & Wang, Natural Hazards, 10.1007/s11069-022-05501-w

Safe Shelter: A Case for Prioritizing Housing Quality in Climate Adaptation Policy by Remotely Sensing Roof Tarps in the San Francisco Bay Area
Velterop et al., Earth's Future, 10.1029/2022ef002789

Climate change impacts on human health

A short note on the use of daily climate data to calculate Humidex heat-stress indices
Diaconescu et al., International Journal of Climatology, 10.1002/joc.7833

Chronically underestimated: A reassessment of US heat waves using the extended heat index
Romps & Lu, Environmental Research Letters, Open Access 10.1088/1748-9326/ac8945

Effect of climate change on cerebrospinal meningitis morbidities and mortalities: A longitudinal and community-based study in Ghana
Akanwake et al., PLOS Climate, Open Access pdf 10.1371/journal.pclm.0000067

Toward Experimental Heat–Health Early Warning in Africa
, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Open Access pdf 10.1175/bams-d-20-0140.1


Climate Dynamics Preceding Summer Forest Fires in California and the Extreme Case of 2018
Jacobson et al., Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 10.1175/jamc-d-21-0198.1

Converted vegetation type regulates the vegetation greening effects on land surface albedo in arid regions of China
Zhu et al., Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 10.1016/j.agrformet.2022.109119

Informed opinion, nudges & major initiatives

Call for integrating future patterns of biodiversity into European conservation policy
Adam et al., Conservation Letters, Open Access pdf 10.1111/conl.12911

Climate change exacerbates almost two-thirds of pathogenic diseases affecting humans
, Nature Climate Change, Open Access pdf 10.1038/s41558-022-01435-0

Evaluating the benefits of weather and climate services in South Asia: a systematic review
Suckall & Soares, Regional Environmental Change, Open Access pdf 10.1007/s10113-022-01947-7

Preparing for a post-net-zero world
King et al., Nature Climate Change, 10.1038/s41558-022-01446-x

The feel of inclusivity
Lobel, [journal not provided], Open Access pdf 10.32920/ryerson.14653119

The Role of Remaining Carbon Budgets and Net-Zero CO2 Targets in Climate Mitigation Policy
Dickau et al., Current Climate Change Reports, 10.1007/s40641-022-00184-8

Book reviews

Liz Carlisle. Healing grounds: climate, justice, and the deep roots of regenerative farming
Silverman, Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 10.1007/s13412-022-00792-8

Luhas Ley. Building on borrowed time: rising seas and failing infrastructure in Semarang
Smardon, Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 10.1007/s13412-022-00794-6

Articles/Reports from Agencies and Non-Governmental Organizations Addressing Aspects of Climate Change

Enabling Low-Cost Clean Energy and Reliable Service Through Better Transmission Benefits Analysis. A Case Study Of MISO’s Long Range Transmission Planning, Rob Gramlich, American Council on Renewable Energy, Macro Grid Initiative, Grid Strategies

Large-scale regional transmission plays a key role in ensuring low costs for consumers and electric system reliability, resilience, and decarbonization. Yet investment has lagged in recent years for high-capacity, long-distance lines in all regions of the United States. Over the last few years, the Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) developed a new plan for a set of lines (known as Tranche 1) in its region that would enable around 56 gigawatts (GW) of new renewables. This plan was based on scenario modeling of state and utility emissions reduction goals that showed carbon emissions falling by more than 60% in 2040 from 2005 levels. The Tranche 1 portfolio was approved by the MISO Board of Directors on July 25, 2022. To achieve regulatory approval and sufficient stakeholder support for such plans, it is important to measure the various benefits, and determine who receives those benefits. While the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has jurisdiction over transmission planning and cost allocation, it has no standards in place on the types of benefits or how to measure them to date. MISO worked with stakeholders and developed support for a set of benefits and methods, identifying approximately $37.3 billion worth of benefits delivered from a portfolio with $14.1 billion in 20-year total revenue requirement.

Benefits of Local Government Aggregation of Clean Energy Resources: Emerging Opportunities Under FERC Order Number 2222, Chen et al, World Resources Institute

The authors discuss how U.S. local governments can make money and derive benefits from emerging market opportunities related to distributed energy resources (DERs), like rooftop solar, electric vehicles and water heaters, in the context of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Order Number 2222. Distributed energy resources, like rooftop solar, electric vehicles, and water heaters, can make money and derive other benefits for their owners by selling energy and other grid services in regional electricity markets. These resources are typically smaller in scale than other energy resources but can have big impacts on local governments’ clean energy goals, especially through aggregation. FERC Order Number 2222, which took effect in 2020, requires regional grid operators to enable DERs to offer any services they are capable of providing through aggregation. This may reduce barriers to aggregated DER participation in certain FERC-regulated markets, ultimately offering local governments more ways to generate revenue from wholesale electricity markets and meet their clean energy goals more quickly. FERC and regional grid operators are currently in the process of finalizing region-specific market rules to comply with the order, which will determine the extent of the market opportunities for DERs.

California's Water Supply Strategy. Adapting to a Hotter, Drier Future, Government of California

The strategy outlines California’s priority actions to adapt and protect water supplies in an era of rising temperatures.

Hybrid Power Plants. Status of Operating and Proposed Plants, 2022 Edition, Bolinger et al, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Hybrid / co-located plants exist in many configurations and are distributed broadly across the U.S. PV+Storage dominates in terms of number of plants (140), storage capacity (2.2 GW), and storage energy (7 GWh). There is now more battery capacity operating within PV+Battery hybrids than on a standalone basis. Storage: generator ratios are higher and storage durations are longer for PV+Storage plants than for other types of generator+storage hybrids. Hybrids comprise a large and growing share of proposed plants. 42% (285 GW) of all solar and 8% (19 GW) of all wind in interconnection queues are proposed as hybrids (up from 34% and 6% in 2020). PV+storage dominates the hybrid development pipeline (at >90%). Proposed plants are concentrated in the West and the California Independent System Operator.

The June 2022 AP-NORC Center Poll, The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research

The June Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research poll, which was conducted before Congress passed the Inflation Reduction Act on Friday, shows majorities of U.S. adults think the government and corporations have a significant responsibility to address climate change (see pages 10-16). Overall, 35% of U.S. adults say they are "extremely" or "very" concerned about the impact of climate change on them personally, down from 44% in August 2019. Another third say they are somewhat concerned. Only about half say their actions have an effect on climate change, compared with two-thirds in 2019.

Climate and Health Outlook, Office of Climate Change and Health Equity

The Climate and Health Outlook is an effort to inform health professionals and the public on how our health may be affected in the coming month(s) by climate events and provide resources to take proactive action. This edition explores the climate-related health hazards of wildfire, drought, extreme heat, and hurricanes.

The 6th National Climate Risk Assessment: Hazardous Heat, First Street Foundation

The authors analyze the prevalence of increasing extreme temperatures and dangerous heat wave events throughout the contiguous United States, with a key finding being the incidence of heat that exceeds the threshold of the National Weather Service’s (NWS) highest category for heat, called “Extreme Danger” (Heat Index above 125°F) is expected to impact about 8 million people this year, and grows to impact about 107 million people in 2053, an increase of 13 times over 30 years. This increase in “Extreme Danger Days” is concentrated in the middle of the country, in areas where there are no coastal influences to mitigate extreme temperatures.

More Educational Outreach on Extreme Heat Needed in the Midwest and Southwest, Saposhnik et al, Yale Program on Climate Change Communication

The authors point to a need for more educational outreach on extreme heat, especially in the midwest and southwest. Due to global warming, people around the world are experiencing a greater number of extreme heat events. More than 150 million people in the United States experienced heat warnings or heat advisories in July 2022, with some areas experiencing record-breaking temperatures or record-breaking stretches of consecutive days over 100°F (38°C). The heat is not only uncomfortable, but it’s also deadly for some, especially for older adults, those on certain medications, pregnant women, children, and many others. Yet, public opinion estimates from the Yale Climate Opinion Maps show that 65% of Americans were “very” or “somewhat” worried about global warming in the fall of 2021, with substantial county-level variation. Nationally, only 47% of Americans think they will be personally harmed by global warming.

Climate Finance Innovation for Africa, Blocher et al, Climate Policy Initiative

The amount of climate finance in Africa falls dramatically short of what is needed to implement Nationally Determined Contribution (NDCs) in the region. The authors estimate Africa’s climate finance needs at an average of USD 250 billion annually from 2020-2030, which must be provided by private and international public investors. Meanwhile, the total annual climate finance mobilized in Africa in 2020 was only USD 29.5 billion.


Obtaining articles without journal subscriptions

We know it's frustrating that many articles we cite here are not free to read. One-off paid access fees are generally astronomically priced, suitable for such as "On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light but not as a gamble on unknowns. With a median world income of US$ 9,373, for most of us US$ 42 is significant money to wager on an article's relevance and importance. 

  • Unpaywall offers a browser extension for Chrome and Firefox that automatically indicates when an article is freely accessible and provides immediate access without further trouble. Unpaywall is also unscammy, works well, is itself offered free to use. The organizers (a legitimate nonprofit) report about a 50% success rate
  • The weekly New Research catch is checked against the Unpaywall database with accessible items being flagged. Especially for just-published articles this mechansim may fail. If you're interested in an article title and it is not listed here as "open access," be sure to check the link anyway. 

How is New Research assembled?

Most articles appearing here are found via  RSS feeds from journal publishers, filtered by search terms to produce raw output for assessment of relevance. 

Relevant articles are then queried against the Unpaywall database, to identify open access articles and expose useful metadata for articles appearing in the database. 

The objective of New Research isn't to cast a tinge on scientific results, to color readers' impressions. Hence candidate articles are assessed via two metrics only:

  • Was an article deemed of sufficient merit by a team of journal editors and peer reviewers? The fact of journal RSS output assigns a "yes" to this automatically. 
  • Is an article relevant to the topic of anthropogenic climate change? Due to filter overlap with other publication topics of inquiry, of a typical week's 550 or so input articles about 1/4 of RSS output makes the cut.

A few journals offer public access to "preprint" versions of articles for which the review process is not yet complete. For some key journals this all the mention we'll see in RSS feeds, so we include such items in New Research. These are flagged as "preprint."

The section "Informed opinion, nudges & major initiatives" includes some items that are not scientific research per se but fall instead into the category of "perspectives," observations of implications of research findings, areas needing attention, etc.


Please let us know if you're aware of an article you think may be of interest for Skeptical Science research news, or if we've missed something that may be important. Send your input to Skeptical Science via our contact form.

Journals covered

A list of journals we cover may be found here. We welcome pointers to omissions, new journals etc.

Previous edition

The previous edition of Skeptical Science New Research may be found here.

0 0

Printable Version  |  Link to this page


Comments 1 to 13:



    US Energy generation by source provided by the US Energy Information Administration is one of the best sources to understand the practical limitations of renewables.  


    A few things to note for the period July 1 2022 through Aug 15th which covered most of the US heat wave of the summer of 2022.  Electric generation from wind was at the low point most every day for that 45 day period from late morning until evening with few exceptions.  

    The nice thing about the interactive chart is that you can select any grid in the US and select any time period, ( see the star wheel in the upper right of the chart which provides the options to change grids and time periods).  Using that feature allows the individual to see any time period.  That being said, one of the other data to see the the frequency of 2-3 day periods when electric generation from wind is in the doldrums.  


    So, even though the LCOE is considered to be low for wind, LCOE becomes meaningless with the wind doesnt produce or when it produces more than the grid can handle ( 

    0 0
  2. Its very simple: 100% renewables as fast as we are able to or we die out!

    0 0
  3. David-acct:

    Fortunately for renewables, from late morning until early evening every day the sun was shining to cover the electricity need.  The sun shines every day!

    Jacobson et al 2022 shows that an all renewable system covers all energy, all day, every day and is so much cheaper than fossil fuels that it pays for itself in only 6 years.  In addition,, the health benefits from less pollution are immense.  Most of the storage is batteries.

    Read the literature to get informed.  When you raise objections that were answered ten years ago it simply wastes time.

    0 0
  4. Further to Michael's comment, calling attention to an article highlighted in this very edition:

    Hybrid Power Plants. Status of Operating and Proposed Plants, 2022 Edition, Bolinger et al, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Nonrenewables axiomatically have their own hard limitation and unreliability beyond intermittency: they're not permanent. When whatever it is that we're rearranging to extract energy is exhausted, that's it— that system is kaput for good.

    If we're OK with a very brief phase of civilization as we'd like it, non-renewable (temporary) fuel is not a problem. If we'd prefer to be in the long game, we'll inevitably be running on 100% renewables.

    Succinctly: resistance to renewable energy is not so distant from wishing for or even believing in perpetual motion. 

    Meanwhile, for the case of fossil hydrocarbons, the more we burn now the sooner the date at which we have to begin building HC molecules for all the other requirements they fulfill. And (no surprise) doing that requires a lot of energy. The more FF we burn now, the bigger our burden later. The sooner we choke off this error, the better. Calling building materials "fuel" is a bit stupid, after all. 


    0 0
  5. Michael Sweet

    I completely agree with you that everyone should read the literature to become fully informed.  

    I my world, with acquisitions and product purchases and other testing we perform due dilegence - a variation of "peer review" with the primary difference is that real money is involved so we strive to get it right.  Not that in academia, there are negative consequences are not as bad if you get in wrong.  

    one of the reasons I provided the link to EIA was because it is an excellent unbaised source for electric generation by source on a real time basis for all the grids in the US.  


    That being said, I reviewed Jacobsons paper from oct 2021, along with his paper from 2015.  I also read the critique of jacobson's work published in june2017 by pnas.  His updates are basically minor modifications to his 2015 study/analysis.  All his papers are quite dismissive of the hurdles associated with storage and the frequent doldrums associated with renewables. 

    When comparing and contrasting his analysis of how to deal with the intermitiancy of wind, he glosses over any hurdles.  None of his proposals come close to addressing engineering hurdles such as the the event of Feb 2021 in a coherent / reality based manner.  I refer back to the EIA which shows the combined electric generation from wind and solar in ercot grid was down 60-90% for 8-9 days , the SWpp grid lost  70% for 6 days. the  MIso grid lost 50-90%  for 14 days.  the MICO grid was also near collapse that the Ercot grid experience.  

    I have re inserted the link to the EIA . gov website so that other readers of this website can review the SOURCE data.


    You can select the time period and grid using the star wheel link in the upper right corner



    again I appreciate your comments - especially to become informed - especially to become fully informed and to perform the necessary due diligence to reach an independent unbiased conclusion

    0 0
  6. To save folks a little time, here are the earlier papers David mentions:

    Jacobson et al. 2015: Low-cost solution to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of intermittent wind, water, and solar for all purposes

    Clark et al. 2017: Evaluation of a proposal for reliable low-cost grid power with 100% wind, water, and solar

    Jacobson et al. reply in detail to Clark et al.: The United States can keep the grid stable at low cost with 100% clean, renewable energy in all sectors despite inaccurate claims

    0 0
    Moderator Response:

    [BL] Third link corrected (I hope)

  7. David-acct:

    It is discouraging when someone says "I completely agree with you that everyone should read the literature to become fully informed" and then cites an old, discredited paper like Clack et al 2017 (typo in citation in post 6 above).  Clack's primary complaint was how hydropower was handled.  Jacobson 2017 shows that issue does not affect the result.  All Clacks' 2017 issues have been solved.

    Since 2015 Jacobson has updated his work about every two years.  Renewable energy has gone down in price much more than expected so now renewable energy not only can deliver all energy, it is much, much cheaper than fossil fuels. Jacobson et al 2022  is state of the art.  A lot has changed since 2015.  Try to stay current.  As I mentioned above, Jacobson now uses batteries as a major energy storage system.

    Breyer et al 2022 reviews the history and current status of scientific thought on All Energy Renewable Energy Systems.  There are multiple solutions to the issue of intermittent wind.  Jacobson does not use any combustion, he believes the pollution from burning is not worth it.  Other solutions are cheaper.  Even with no combustion, renewable energy is much cheaper and more dependable than fossil fuels. (Think low gas supplies currently in Europe and recently in Texas).

    Scientists have shown that large renewable grids are much cheaper than small grids like EPCOT.  I do not care if wind was low in a small area like ERCOT.  I note that consumers in Texas have been charged several billion dollars extra in the last decade because the grid in Texas is set up to fleece consumers.

    Jacobson models the entire world in 30 second intervals using 3 years of weather data.  He counts the entire contenental USA as one grid.  Renewables provide all energy more reliably than the current grid.  Texas will have to upgrade to be with the rest of the USA.  If the wind in Texas in Feb 2021 was an issue Clack would have published on it by now.  The fact that he hasn't tells me it is not an issue.

    0 0
  8. I believe renewables can work. Break the issue down to the absolute basics. Renewables are intermittent sources of energy but this can be solved by storage and / or overbuild. There can be no real debate about this because its basic engineering and physics. Therefore its all about practicality and costs (and practicality comes down to costs anyway). I'm ignoring smart grids for the sake of simplicity.

    Studies I've seen suggest renewables can easily be cost effective at 80% grid penetration, and should be cost effective at 100% grid penetration. Either option is great for the climate although 100% penetration is obviously best.

    I don't have time to search out links analysing costs. I just wanted to make the point that 1) to understand the issue and have the correct starting point for discussion, first break the issue down to something that can't be realistically disputed or reduced further. Although the denialists will try I suppose and 2) we don't have to have a 100% penetration of renewables to make a difference although 100% penetration is desirable. There are many storage options including battery farms, pumped hydro, electrofuels, etc, etc.


    0 0
  9. Michael - Can you point to studies where the Clark critique has been discredited by any experts with real world experience. The only rebuttal I located was from Jacobson which was quite superficial. The critiques of Jacobson are based partly on the unrealistic assumptions for future storage capacity along with the failure to properly address the frequent drop in electric generation from renewables due to the variations of weather..

    Again in my world, due diligence is imperative. In my world , we dont rely on what someone claims in a study just because they said it was true. We test against other known data. I provided the EIA website link which allows you review actual electric generation by source on a real time basis. I previously mentioned the Feb 2021 drought of wind and solar production which affected most of the north american continent for 7-9 days.

    The EIA website for just the 8 months of 2022 shows drops in wind and solar generation in the USA

    Feb 23 - march 3, 9 days average drop of electric generation from renewables approx 60-70%

    May 3-7 4 days 50% -60% drop

    June 1 - June 12 10-12 days, average drop of electric generation from renewables approx 60-70%

    July 4th through August 22, approx 50 days where electric generation dropped by 2/3 with the exception of 8 days where the electric generation only dropped by 1/3.

    Additionally, there were numerous other days that had significant drops in generation from wind and solar.

    I saw nothing in Jacobson's analysis that addresses those frequent periods of 3-4 days or the 40-50 days drop in electric generation from wind/renewables in a realistic fashion.

    comparing and contrasting the quality of the competing analysis, and comparing real time data (due diligence ), the clark et al critique has the better analysis of the feasibility.

    0 0
  10. David-acct:

    The authors name is "Clack", my spell checker changes it to " Clark".  I note that there was controversy because some people listed as authors did no work on the paper.  We will leave that aside.

    I don't think you understand scientific argument the same as I do.  In 2015 Jacobson et al published what they thought was right.  They had data for the USA and found renewables were as reliable as fossil fuels and only a little more expensive.  Clack et al published what they thought Jacobson said that was wrong.  The primary issue was the use of hydro power.  Jacobson replied.

    Back in 2017 there was a question of who was correct.  I thought Jacobson was correct but I think you would have agreed with Clack.

    Science advances by people obtaining more data and making better arguments.  In 2018 Jacobson published a new paper where he showed 100% renewable energy in 139 countries was as reliable as fossil fuels and cost about the same as fossil fuels.  He treated hydro power as Clack had suggested and adjusted his model to correct the other issues Clack had raised.  Clack did not raise any issues with this new paper which indicates that he felt his issues were addressed properly.

    In 2022 Jacobson has a new paper (linked above) about 145 countries.  Now renewable energy is much cheaper than fossil fuels and more reliable.  Jacobson uses primarily batteries to store electricity instead of more exotic storage way back in 2015.  His model uses a much better weather model testing every 30seconds where he tested every 5 minutes in 2015.  He has adjusted his argument to include changes, like the immense decrease in cost of batteries, solar and wind, that have occurred since 2015. No one has challenged his 2022 paper.

    You are wasting our time arguing about Jacobson 2015.  It has been superseded three times.  Even if Clack had been correct way back in 2015, Jacobson has answered all the issues Clack raised in his subsequent papers.  You need to address Jacobson 2022 if you have any questions.  New data has shown that Clack was wrong and Jacobson was right.

    Breyer et al 2022, previously linked above, has over 460 references.  Virtually all of them show that 100% renewable energy is cost effective and as reliable as fossil fuels.

    If you want to argue that renewables are limited, you need to address current thinking and not try to argue that people in the distant past were incorrect.  Your claim that Jacobson did not address periods of low wind or solar is simply wrong.  Read Jacobson 2022 and Breyer 2022.

    0 0
  11. David acct @9. You keep highlighting periods of several days where weather has not much wind thus reducing output of wind farms. Where I live gas peaker plants make up for this deficit, if required,  and this seems common practice in the world. Do you not realise it works that way? Eventually in NZ gas peaker plants will be replaced by storage.

    The government is considering pumped hydro storage at Lake Onslow (you can google this if you are interested). It comes down to the costs and practicalities of storage as previously stated. However pumped hydro is proven practical technology and is used  in places like Australia. I also endorse what MS is saying. 

    0 0
  12. Accustomed as we are to using the same tool for providing nearly all of our energy requirements, perhaps part of the challenge here is the mental shift of needing context-dependent replacements. 

    If one likes "simple," perhaps it's unappealing to need a relative plethora of capture and storage tech where previously everything was centered on combustion and turbines. 

    We're nonetheless left with the plain fact that our days of "simple" are fleeting, not a permanent feature. 

    0 0


    The above article is praising Jacobsons work and analysis of 100% renewables. 

    I have posted the money quote describing jacobsons 30 sec test of the supply and demand of electricity.  See if you can spot the logic flaw in jacobsons analysis.


    "In the recent study, Jacobson and colleagues showed how to meet energy demands every 30 seconds across the United States with no blackouts in a greener, more populated nation in 2050 and 2051.

    They modeled grid stability throughout the contiguous United States, including data from a weather-climate-air pollution model, which includes climate factors and statistically typical weather patterns that occur in a given region. Using energy consumption data from the Energy Information Administration, the team simulated energy demands for 2050 to 2051. Energy supply had to equal energy demand every 30 seconds, otherwise the model shut down.


    "The team found that the actual energy demand decreased significantly by simply shifting to renewable resources, which are more efficient. For the entire United States, total end-use energy demand decreased by about 57 percent. Per capita household annual energy costs were about 63 percent less than a “business as usual” scenario."

    0 0

You need to be logged in to post a comment. Login via the left margin or if you're new, register here.

The Consensus Project Website


(free to republish)

© Copyright 2024 John Cook
Home | Translations | About Us | Privacy | Contact Us